This study investigated gender differences in upper-body contribution to cycle muscle power in 23 adolescents. All subjects performed two 5-s and one 20-s cycling sprint, using two protocols: with handgrip (WG) and without handgrip (WOG). Maximal handgrip strength was assessed for each individual. Absolute peak and mean cycling power was corrected for total fat-free mass (FFM) and for lean leg volume (LLV). Males showed higher cycling performance than females. Peak power and 20-s mean power (flywheel inertia included), but not optimal velocity, were higher WG than WOG. Especially for peak power, absolute differences between both protocols were higher in males than in females, and were significantly related to handgrip strength. The significant contribution of the upper body suggested that, for standardisation of cycle muscle power, total FFM is a more relevant variable compared with LLV. Furthermore, in adolescents, the higher contribution of the upper body musculature in males partly explained gender differences in peak power.
Doré, E., Baker, J. S., Jammes, A., Graham, M., New, K., & Van Praagh, E. (2006). Upper body contribution during leg cycling peak power in teenage boys and girls. Research in Sports Medicine, 14(4), 245-257. https://doi.org/10.1080/15438620600985829