Anhydroexfoliamycin (1) and undecylprodigiosin (2) have been previously described as neuroprotective molecules against oxidative stress in neurons. Since oxidative stress is strongly correlated with neurodegenerative diseases, we have evaluated their effects over the principal hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Both compounds were tested in vitro in two different neuroblastoma cellular models, one for amyloid precursor protein metabolism studies (BE(2)-M17) and another one specific for taupathology in AD (SH-SY5Y-TMHT441). Amyloid-beta (Aβ) levels, β-secretase (BACE1) activity, tau phosphorylation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3β) expression were analyzed and while undecylprodigiosin (2) produced poor results, anhydroexfoliamycin (1) strongly inhibited GSK3β, reducing tau phosphorylation in vitro (0.1 μM). A competitive assay of anhydroexfoliamycin (1) and the specific c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, SP600125, showed that the reduction of the phosphorylated tau levels is mediated by the JNK pathway in SH-SY5Y-TMHT441 cells. Thus, this compound was tested in vivo by intraperitoneal administration in 3xTg-AD mice, confirming the positive results registered in the in vitro assays. This work presents anhydroexfoliamycin (1) as a promising candidate for further studies in drug development against neurodegenerative diseases.
|Publication status||Published - 1 Oct 2015|