The importance of disaggregating within-person changes and individual differences among internalized motives, self-esteem and self-efficacy

Daryl T. Cowan, Ian M. Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Grounded in self-determination theory, this study examined the implications of differentiating between within-person weekly changes and between-person differences in average levels of autonomy support and internalized motivation for one's self-esteem and self-efficacy. Thirty-nine adults who were socially disadvantaged and unemployed completed weekly questionnaire assessments over 11-weeks of a sports-based educational program. Multilevel modeling revealed that within-person changes in perceptions of autonomy support positively predicted identified regulation and introjected regulation; however, between-person differences in perceived autonomy support predicted identified regulation only. Within-person changes in introjected regulation positively predicted global self-esteem and self-efficacy towards future employment in coaching; however, between-person differences in introjected regulation negatively predicted self-esteem and self-efficacy. In contrast, within-person changes in identified regulation, as well as between-person differences, were positively associated with self-efficacy. Between-person differences in identified regulation also positively predicted self-esteem. It was also demonstrated that many of these contrasting relationships are hidden if the different processes are not disaggregated. As a result, we propose that different internalization processes exist which depend on whether within-person changes or sustained levels of motivation are explored.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)489-497
JournalMOTIVATION AND EMOTION
Volume39
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2015
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Self-determination
  • Autonomy
  • Motivation
  • Within-person
  • Between-person

Cite this

@article{ae4ac3a218824b4bb8fe46d20ef9a43d,
title = "The importance of disaggregating within-person changes and individual differences among internalized motives, self-esteem and self-efficacy",
abstract = "Grounded in self-determination theory, this study examined the implications of differentiating between within-person weekly changes and between-person differences in average levels of autonomy support and internalized motivation for one's self-esteem and self-efficacy. Thirty-nine adults who were socially disadvantaged and unemployed completed weekly questionnaire assessments over 11-weeks of a sports-based educational program. Multilevel modeling revealed that within-person changes in perceptions of autonomy support positively predicted identified regulation and introjected regulation; however, between-person differences in perceived autonomy support predicted identified regulation only. Within-person changes in introjected regulation positively predicted global self-esteem and self-efficacy towards future employment in coaching; however, between-person differences in introjected regulation negatively predicted self-esteem and self-efficacy. In contrast, within-person changes in identified regulation, as well as between-person differences, were positively associated with self-efficacy. Between-person differences in identified regulation also positively predicted self-esteem. It was also demonstrated that many of these contrasting relationships are hidden if the different processes are not disaggregated. As a result, we propose that different internalization processes exist which depend on whether within-person changes or sustained levels of motivation are explored.",
keywords = "Self-determination, Autonomy, Motivation, Within-person, Between-person",
author = "Cowan, {Daryl T.} and Taylor, {Ian M.}",
year = "2015",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1007/s11031-014-9466-6",
language = "English",
volume = "39",
pages = "489--497",
journal = "MOTIVATION AND EMOTION",
issn = "0146-7239",
publisher = "Springer-Verlag",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The importance of disaggregating within-person changes and individual differences among internalized motives, self-esteem and self-efficacy

AU - Cowan, Daryl T.

AU - Taylor, Ian M.

PY - 2015/8

Y1 - 2015/8

N2 - Grounded in self-determination theory, this study examined the implications of differentiating between within-person weekly changes and between-person differences in average levels of autonomy support and internalized motivation for one's self-esteem and self-efficacy. Thirty-nine adults who were socially disadvantaged and unemployed completed weekly questionnaire assessments over 11-weeks of a sports-based educational program. Multilevel modeling revealed that within-person changes in perceptions of autonomy support positively predicted identified regulation and introjected regulation; however, between-person differences in perceived autonomy support predicted identified regulation only. Within-person changes in introjected regulation positively predicted global self-esteem and self-efficacy towards future employment in coaching; however, between-person differences in introjected regulation negatively predicted self-esteem and self-efficacy. In contrast, within-person changes in identified regulation, as well as between-person differences, were positively associated with self-efficacy. Between-person differences in identified regulation also positively predicted self-esteem. It was also demonstrated that many of these contrasting relationships are hidden if the different processes are not disaggregated. As a result, we propose that different internalization processes exist which depend on whether within-person changes or sustained levels of motivation are explored.

AB - Grounded in self-determination theory, this study examined the implications of differentiating between within-person weekly changes and between-person differences in average levels of autonomy support and internalized motivation for one's self-esteem and self-efficacy. Thirty-nine adults who were socially disadvantaged and unemployed completed weekly questionnaire assessments over 11-weeks of a sports-based educational program. Multilevel modeling revealed that within-person changes in perceptions of autonomy support positively predicted identified regulation and introjected regulation; however, between-person differences in perceived autonomy support predicted identified regulation only. Within-person changes in introjected regulation positively predicted global self-esteem and self-efficacy towards future employment in coaching; however, between-person differences in introjected regulation negatively predicted self-esteem and self-efficacy. In contrast, within-person changes in identified regulation, as well as between-person differences, were positively associated with self-efficacy. Between-person differences in identified regulation also positively predicted self-esteem. It was also demonstrated that many of these contrasting relationships are hidden if the different processes are not disaggregated. As a result, we propose that different internalization processes exist which depend on whether within-person changes or sustained levels of motivation are explored.

KW - Self-determination

KW - Autonomy

KW - Motivation

KW - Within-person

KW - Between-person

U2 - 10.1007/s11031-014-9466-6

DO - 10.1007/s11031-014-9466-6

M3 - Article

VL - 39

SP - 489

EP - 497

JO - MOTIVATION AND EMOTION

JF - MOTIVATION AND EMOTION

SN - 0146-7239

IS - 4

ER -