The Glasgow Outcome at Discharge Scale: an inpatient assessment of disability after brain injury

Thomas M McMillan, Christopher J Weir, Alaister Ireland, Elaine Stewart

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19 Citations (Scopus)


This study assesses the validity and reliability of the Glasgow Outcome at Discharge Scale (GODS), which is a tool that is designed to assess disability after brain injury in an inpatient setting. It is derived from the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E), which assesses disability in the community after brain injury. Inter-rater reliability on the GODS is high (quadratic-weighted kappa 0.982; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.968, 0.996) as is concurrent validity with the Disability Rating Scale (DRS) (Spearman correlation -0.728; 95% CI -0.819, -0.601). The GODS is significantly associated with physical and fatigue subscales of the short form (SF)-36 in hospital. In terms of predictive validity the GODS is highly associated with the GOS-E after discharge (Spearman correlation 0.512; 95% CI 0.281, 0.687), with the DRS, and with physical, fatigue, and social subscales of the SF-36. The GODS is recommended as an assessment tool for disability after brain injury pre-discharge and can be used in conjunction with the GOS-E to monitor disability between hospital and the community.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)970-4
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Neurotrauma
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Brain Injuries
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Female
  • Glasgow Outcome Scale
  • Humans
  • Inpatients
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Young Adult
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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