The cardiovascular responses of male subjects to kung fu techniques: expert/novice paradigm

M.A. Jones, V.B. Unnithan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background. The pri­mary aim was to ­assess car­di­o­vas­cu­lar respons­es of ­expert and nov­ice sub­jects to ­kung fu tech­niques. It was hypo­the­sised ­that expe­ri­enced sub­jects ­would dem­on­strate ­improved econ­o­my of move­ment dur­ing the tech­niques, evi­denced by ­reduced exer­cise inten­sity.
Methods. Experi­men­tal ­design: a com­par­a­tive ­design was estab­lished util­is­ing two ­groups; expe­ri­enced (­group E), and nov­ice (group N). Set­ting: the exper­i­men­ta­tion ­took ­place ­under labor­a­to­ry con­di­tions, but was ­designed to max­i­mise exter­nal valid­ity.
Par­tic­i­pants:the ­only pres­e­lec­tion var­i­ables ­were reg­u­lar atten­dance at train­ing and expe­ri­ence. ­Nine expe­ri­enced ­males (­group E, exp 9.5±5.2 yrs) and ­nine nov­ice ­males (­group N, exp 1.2±0.1 yrs) par­tic­i­pat­ed. The ­only exclu­sion guide­lines ­were con­tra­in­di­ca­tions to par­tic­i­pate with­in a max­i­mal ­test, no sub­jects ­were exclud­ed ­upon ­this ­basis. Inter­ven­tions: N/A. 
Meas­ures: each sub­ject par­tic­i­pat­ed in ­three ­kung fu pro­to­cols (­forms, kick­ing and punch­ing). ­Each pro­to­col, ran­dom­ly allo­cat­ed, con­sist­ed of ten ­work (30 sec) and ten ­rest peri­ods (30 sec). Meas­ures tak­en dur­ing the pro­to­cols ­were ­heart ­rate (HR) and oxy­gen con­sump­tion (V.O2). ­These ­were ­expressed as a per­cent­age of max­i­mal val­ues to ­reflect exer­cise inten­sity.
Results. Dur­ing ­both the ­form pro­to­col and punch­ing pro­to­col ­group E ­were ­found to be work­ing at a sig­nif­i­cant­ly (p<0.05) low­er %V.O2max ­than ­group N (­forms - ­group E=71.5+5.3, ­group N=82.1±6.1; punch­ing - ­group E=37.5±2.1, ­group N=40.6±2.6, p<0.05). ­This sug­gests ­that expe­ri­enced sub­jects ­were ­more eco­nom­i­cal ­when per­form­ing sim­i­lar move­ment pat­terns.
Con­clu­sions. It was con­clud­ed ­that car­di­o­vas­cu­lar respons­es to ­kung fu tech­niques dif­fer depend­ing ­upon expe­ri­ence lev­el. It is dif­fi­cult to direct­ly ­relate ­this to ­improved econ­o­my ­since ­work out­put ­could not be accu­rate­ly quan­ti­fied. It was ­also ­found ­that ­kung fu pro­to­cols elic­it­ed exer­cise inten­sity ­into the car­di­o­vas­cu­lar train­ing ­zone.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)323-329
Number of pages7
JournalThe Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Volume38
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1998
Externally publishedYes

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@article{46d46b436afe462fb61d60eefb8001ad,
title = "The cardiovascular responses of male subjects to kung fu techniques: expert/novice paradigm",
abstract = "Background. The pri­mary aim was to ­assess car­di­o­vas­cu­lar respons­es of ­expert and nov­ice sub­jects to ­kung fu tech­niques. It was hypo­the­sised ­that expe­ri­enced sub­jects ­would dem­on­strate ­improved econ­o­my of move­ment dur­ing the tech­niques, evi­denced by ­reduced exer­cise inten­sity.Methods. Experi­men­tal ­design: a com­par­a­tive ­design was estab­lished util­is­ing two ­groups; expe­ri­enced (­group E), and nov­ice (group N). Set­ting: the exper­i­men­ta­tion ­took ­place ­under labor­a­to­ry con­di­tions, but was ­designed to max­i­mise exter­nal valid­ity.Par­tic­i­pants:the ­only pres­e­lec­tion var­i­ables ­were reg­u­lar atten­dance at train­ing and expe­ri­ence. ­Nine expe­ri­enced ­males (­group E, exp 9.5±5.2 yrs) and ­nine nov­ice ­males (­group N, exp 1.2±0.1 yrs) par­tic­i­pat­ed. The ­only exclu­sion guide­lines ­were con­tra­in­di­ca­tions to par­tic­i­pate with­in a max­i­mal ­test, no sub­jects ­were exclud­ed ­upon ­this ­basis. Inter­ven­tions: N/A. Meas­ures: each sub­ject par­tic­i­pat­ed in ­three ­kung fu pro­to­cols (­forms, kick­ing and punch­ing). ­Each pro­to­col, ran­dom­ly allo­cat­ed, con­sist­ed of ten ­work (30 sec) and ten ­rest peri­ods (30 sec). Meas­ures tak­en dur­ing the pro­to­cols ­were ­heart ­rate (HR) and oxy­gen con­sump­tion (V.O2). ­These ­were ­expressed as a per­cent­age of max­i­mal val­ues to ­reflect exer­cise inten­sity.Results. Dur­ing ­both the ­form pro­to­col and punch­ing pro­to­col ­group E ­were ­found to be work­ing at a sig­nif­i­cant­ly (p<0.05) low­er {\%}V.O2max ­than ­group N (­forms - ­group E=71.5+5.3, ­group N=82.1±6.1; punch­ing - ­group E=37.5±2.1, ­group N=40.6±2.6, p<0.05). ­This sug­gests ­that expe­ri­enced sub­jects ­were ­more eco­nom­i­cal ­when per­form­ing sim­i­lar move­ment pat­terns.Con­clu­sions. It was con­clud­ed ­that car­di­o­vas­cu­lar respons­es to ­kung fu tech­niques dif­fer depend­ing ­upon expe­ri­ence lev­el. It is dif­fi­cult to direct­ly ­relate ­this to ­improved econ­o­my ­since ­work out­put ­could not be accu­rate­ly quan­ti­fied. It was ­also ­found ­that ­kung fu pro­to­cols elic­it­ed exer­cise inten­sity ­into the car­di­o­vas­cu­lar train­ing ­zone.",
author = "M.A. Jones and V.B. Unnithan",
year = "1998",
month = "12",
language = "English",
volume = "38",
pages = "323--329",
journal = "The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness",
issn = "0022-4707",
publisher = "Edizioni Minerva Medica S.p.A.",
number = "4",

}

The cardiovascular responses of male subjects to kung fu techniques : expert/novice paradigm. / Jones, M.A.; Unnithan, V.B.

In: The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, Vol. 38, No. 4, 12.1998, p. 323-329.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The cardiovascular responses of male subjects to kung fu techniques

T2 - expert/novice paradigm

AU - Jones, M.A.

AU - Unnithan, V.B.

PY - 1998/12

Y1 - 1998/12

N2 - Background. The pri­mary aim was to ­assess car­di­o­vas­cu­lar respons­es of ­expert and nov­ice sub­jects to ­kung fu tech­niques. It was hypo­the­sised ­that expe­ri­enced sub­jects ­would dem­on­strate ­improved econ­o­my of move­ment dur­ing the tech­niques, evi­denced by ­reduced exer­cise inten­sity.Methods. Experi­men­tal ­design: a com­par­a­tive ­design was estab­lished util­is­ing two ­groups; expe­ri­enced (­group E), and nov­ice (group N). Set­ting: the exper­i­men­ta­tion ­took ­place ­under labor­a­to­ry con­di­tions, but was ­designed to max­i­mise exter­nal valid­ity.Par­tic­i­pants:the ­only pres­e­lec­tion var­i­ables ­were reg­u­lar atten­dance at train­ing and expe­ri­ence. ­Nine expe­ri­enced ­males (­group E, exp 9.5±5.2 yrs) and ­nine nov­ice ­males (­group N, exp 1.2±0.1 yrs) par­tic­i­pat­ed. The ­only exclu­sion guide­lines ­were con­tra­in­di­ca­tions to par­tic­i­pate with­in a max­i­mal ­test, no sub­jects ­were exclud­ed ­upon ­this ­basis. Inter­ven­tions: N/A. Meas­ures: each sub­ject par­tic­i­pat­ed in ­three ­kung fu pro­to­cols (­forms, kick­ing and punch­ing). ­Each pro­to­col, ran­dom­ly allo­cat­ed, con­sist­ed of ten ­work (30 sec) and ten ­rest peri­ods (30 sec). Meas­ures tak­en dur­ing the pro­to­cols ­were ­heart ­rate (HR) and oxy­gen con­sump­tion (V.O2). ­These ­were ­expressed as a per­cent­age of max­i­mal val­ues to ­reflect exer­cise inten­sity.Results. Dur­ing ­both the ­form pro­to­col and punch­ing pro­to­col ­group E ­were ­found to be work­ing at a sig­nif­i­cant­ly (p<0.05) low­er %V.O2max ­than ­group N (­forms - ­group E=71.5+5.3, ­group N=82.1±6.1; punch­ing - ­group E=37.5±2.1, ­group N=40.6±2.6, p<0.05). ­This sug­gests ­that expe­ri­enced sub­jects ­were ­more eco­nom­i­cal ­when per­form­ing sim­i­lar move­ment pat­terns.Con­clu­sions. It was con­clud­ed ­that car­di­o­vas­cu­lar respons­es to ­kung fu tech­niques dif­fer depend­ing ­upon expe­ri­ence lev­el. It is dif­fi­cult to direct­ly ­relate ­this to ­improved econ­o­my ­since ­work out­put ­could not be accu­rate­ly quan­ti­fied. It was ­also ­found ­that ­kung fu pro­to­cols elic­it­ed exer­cise inten­sity ­into the car­di­o­vas­cu­lar train­ing ­zone.

AB - Background. The pri­mary aim was to ­assess car­di­o­vas­cu­lar respons­es of ­expert and nov­ice sub­jects to ­kung fu tech­niques. It was hypo­the­sised ­that expe­ri­enced sub­jects ­would dem­on­strate ­improved econ­o­my of move­ment dur­ing the tech­niques, evi­denced by ­reduced exer­cise inten­sity.Methods. Experi­men­tal ­design: a com­par­a­tive ­design was estab­lished util­is­ing two ­groups; expe­ri­enced (­group E), and nov­ice (group N). Set­ting: the exper­i­men­ta­tion ­took ­place ­under labor­a­to­ry con­di­tions, but was ­designed to max­i­mise exter­nal valid­ity.Par­tic­i­pants:the ­only pres­e­lec­tion var­i­ables ­were reg­u­lar atten­dance at train­ing and expe­ri­ence. ­Nine expe­ri­enced ­males (­group E, exp 9.5±5.2 yrs) and ­nine nov­ice ­males (­group N, exp 1.2±0.1 yrs) par­tic­i­pat­ed. The ­only exclu­sion guide­lines ­were con­tra­in­di­ca­tions to par­tic­i­pate with­in a max­i­mal ­test, no sub­jects ­were exclud­ed ­upon ­this ­basis. Inter­ven­tions: N/A. Meas­ures: each sub­ject par­tic­i­pat­ed in ­three ­kung fu pro­to­cols (­forms, kick­ing and punch­ing). ­Each pro­to­col, ran­dom­ly allo­cat­ed, con­sist­ed of ten ­work (30 sec) and ten ­rest peri­ods (30 sec). Meas­ures tak­en dur­ing the pro­to­cols ­were ­heart ­rate (HR) and oxy­gen con­sump­tion (V.O2). ­These ­were ­expressed as a per­cent­age of max­i­mal val­ues to ­reflect exer­cise inten­sity.Results. Dur­ing ­both the ­form pro­to­col and punch­ing pro­to­col ­group E ­were ­found to be work­ing at a sig­nif­i­cant­ly (p<0.05) low­er %V.O2max ­than ­group N (­forms - ­group E=71.5+5.3, ­group N=82.1±6.1; punch­ing - ­group E=37.5±2.1, ­group N=40.6±2.6, p<0.05). ­This sug­gests ­that expe­ri­enced sub­jects ­were ­more eco­nom­i­cal ­when per­form­ing sim­i­lar move­ment pat­terns.Con­clu­sions. It was con­clud­ed ­that car­di­o­vas­cu­lar respons­es to ­kung fu tech­niques dif­fer depend­ing ­upon expe­ri­ence lev­el. It is dif­fi­cult to direct­ly ­relate ­this to ­improved econ­o­my ­since ­work out­put ­could not be accu­rate­ly quan­ti­fied. It was ­also ­found ­that ­kung fu pro­to­cols elic­it­ed exer­cise inten­sity ­into the car­di­o­vas­cu­lar train­ing ­zone.

M3 - Article

VL - 38

SP - 323

EP - 329

JO - The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness

JF - The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness

SN - 0022-4707

IS - 4

ER -