The Breast Size Satisfaction Survey (BSSS): breast size dissatisfaction and its antecedents and outcomes in women from 40 nations

Viren Swami*, Ulrich S. Tran, David Barron, Reza Afhami, Annie Aimé, Carlos A. Almenara, Nursel Alp Dal, Ana Carolina Soares Amaral, Sonny Adrianto, Gulnaz Anjum, Marios Argyrides, Mohammad Atari, Mudassar Aziz, Benjamin Banai, Joanna Borowiec, Alexandra Brewis, Yeliz Cakir Kocak, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini Campos, Carmen Carmonara, Trawin ChaleeraktrakoonHong Chen, Phatthanakit Chobthamkit, Bovornpot Choompunuch, Togas Constantinos, Aine Crumlish, Julio Eduardo Cruz, Simon E. Dalley, Devi Damayanti, Joanna Dare, Stacey M. Donofrio, Anja Draksler, Michelle Escasa-Dorne, Elaine Frances Fernandez, Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira, David A. Frederick, Antonio Alias Garcia, Shulamit Geller, Alexias George, Louai Ghazieh, Cosmin Goian, Colin Gorman, Caterina Grano, Jonathan Eliahu Handelzalts, Heather Horsburgh, Todd Jackson, Lady Grey Javela Javela Delgado, Marija Jovic, Marko Jovic, Adam Kantanista, Sevag K. Kertechian, Loes Kessels, Magdalena Krol-Zielinska, Garry Kuan, Yee Cheng Kueh, Sanjay Kumar, Ingela Lundin Kvalem, Caterina Lombardo, Ernesto Luis Lopez Almada, Christophe Maiano, Mandar Manjary, Karlijn Massar, Camilla Matera, Juliana F. Figueiras Mereiles, Norbert Mesko, Hikari Namatame, Amanda Nerini, Felix Neto, Joana Neto, Angela Nogueira Neves, Siu-Kuen Ng, Devi R. Nithiya, Salma Samir Omar, Mika Omori, Maria Serena Panasiti, Irena Pavela Banai, Eva Pila, Alessandra Pokrajac-Bulian, Vita Postuvan, Ivanka Prichard, Magdalena Razmus, Catherine M. Sabiston, Reza N. Sahlan, Jacob Owusu Sarfo, Yoko Sawamiya, Stefan Stieger, Cindi SturtzSreetharan, Eugene Tee, Gill A. ten Hoor, Kulvadee Thongpibul, Arun Tipandjan, Otilia Tudorel, Tracy Tylka, Zahir Vally, Juan Camilo Vargas-Nieto, Luis Diego Vega, Jose Vidal-Mollon, Mona Vintila, Deborah Williams, Amber Wutich, Yuko Yamamiya, Danilo Zambrano, Marcelo Callegari Zanetti, Ivanka Zivcic-Becirevic, Martin Voracek

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The Breast Size Satisfaction Survey (BSSS) was established to assess women's breast size dissatisfaction and breasted experiences from a cross-national perspective. A total of 18,541 women were recruited from 61 research sites across 40 nations and completed measures of current-ideal breast size discrepancy, as well as measures of theorised antecedents (personality, Western and local media exposure, and proxies of socioeconomic status) and outcomes (weight and appearance dissatisfaction, breast awareness, and psychological well-being). In the total dataset, 47.5 % of women wanted larger breasts than they currently had, 23.2 % wanted smaller breasts, and 29.3 % were satisfied with their current breast size. There were significant cross-national differences in mean ideal breast size and absolute breast size dissatisfaction, but effect sizes were small (η 2 = .02–.03). The results of multilevel modelling showed that greater Neuroticism, lower Conscientiousness, lower Western media exposure, greater local media exposure, lower financial security, and younger age were associated with greater breast size dissatisfaction across nations. In addition, greater absolute breast size dissatisfaction was associated with greater weight and appearance dissatisfaction, poorer breast awareness, and poorer psychological well-being across nations. These results indicate that breast size dissatisfaction is a global public health concern linked to women's psychological and physical well-being.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199-217
Number of pages19
JournalBody Image
Volume32
Early online date4 Feb 2020
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Mar 2020
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • Cross-cultural psychology
  • Breast size
  • Breast ideals
  • Breast awareness
  • Personality
  • Psychological well-being

Cite this

Swami, V., Tran, U. S., Barron, D., Afhami, R., Aimé, A., Almenara, C. A., Dal, N. A., Amaral, A. C. S., Adrianto, S., Anjum, G., Argyrides, M., Atari, M., Aziz, M., Banai, B., Borowiec, J., Brewis, A., Kocak, Y. C., Campos, J. A. D. B., Carmonara, C., ... Voracek, M. (2020). The Breast Size Satisfaction Survey (BSSS): breast size dissatisfaction and its antecedents and outcomes in women from 40 nations. Body Image, 32, 199-217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.01.006