The acute effects of analogy and explicit instruction on movement and performance

Ray Bobrownicki, Alan C. MacPherson, Dave Collins, John Sproule

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives
To date, research concerning analogy and explicit instruction has focused on motor learning (i.e., change or development over many learning trials) with limited attention directed toward acute performance considerations. Accordingly, the present study examined the short-term, differential effects of analogy and explicit instructions on motor control.

Methods and design
Employing a within-subjects semi-counterbalanced design, 20 novice adult participants performed a dart-throwing task under baseline, analogy, and explicit instruction conditions. Across all throwing trials, movement and performance were evaluated using the dependent variables of throwing accuracy, elbow joint variability, angular velocity, and throw duration.

Results
Analyses did not reveal any statistically significant differences between analogy and explicit instructions for any of the study’s dependent measures. Compared to baseline performances, participants in both verbal instruction conditions demonstrated significantly less accuracy, significantly greater elbow joint variability, significantly slower angular velocity, and significantly longer throwing times.

Conclusions
Findings suggest that verbal instruction may differentially affect performance in motor control situations, compared to motor learning contexts, leading to reduced accuracy; slower, more deliberate control; and increased levels of movement variability. Going forward, practitioners may need to more carefully consider not only how motor skills are instructed, but also the purpose and timing of any instructions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-25
Number of pages9
JournalPsychology of Sport and Exercise
Volume44
Early online date30 Apr 2019
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 30 Apr 2019

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Elbow Joint
Learning
Motor Skills
Research

Keywords

  • Motor Control
  • Instruction
  • Coaching
  • Explicit Instruction
  • Analogy

Cite this

Bobrownicki, Ray ; MacPherson, Alan C. ; Collins, Dave ; Sproule, John. / The acute effects of analogy and explicit instruction on movement and performance. In: Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2019 ; Vol. 44. pp. 17-25.
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The acute effects of analogy and explicit instruction on movement and performance. / Bobrownicki, Ray; MacPherson, Alan C.; Collins, Dave; Sproule, John.

In: Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Vol. 44, 30.09.2019, p. 17-25.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AB - ObjectivesTo date, research concerning analogy and explicit instruction has focused on motor learning (i.e., change or development over many learning trials) with limited attention directed toward acute performance considerations. Accordingly, the present study examined the short-term, differential effects of analogy and explicit instructions on motor control. Methods and designEmploying a within-subjects semi-counterbalanced design, 20 novice adult participants performed a dart-throwing task under baseline, analogy, and explicit instruction conditions. Across all throwing trials, movement and performance were evaluated using the dependent variables of throwing accuracy, elbow joint variability, angular velocity, and throw duration. ResultsAnalyses did not reveal any statistically significant differences between analogy and explicit instructions for any of the study’s dependent measures. Compared to baseline performances, participants in both verbal instruction conditions demonstrated significantly less accuracy, significantly greater elbow joint variability, significantly slower angular velocity, and significantly longer throwing times. ConclusionsFindings suggest that verbal instruction may differentially affect performance in motor control situations, compared to motor learning contexts, leading to reduced accuracy; slower, more deliberate control; and increased levels of movement variability. Going forward, practitioners may need to more carefully consider not only how motor skills are instructed, but also the purpose and timing of any instructions.

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