Testing the 3Rs model of service quality

David Moyes, Joan Scott, Michele Cano-Kourouklis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


– Building on previous work (Cano and Moyes, 2013; Moyes, 2012) this study further develops the proposition that word-of-mouth (WOM) and customer retention are enhanced through the “three Rs” of service quality; namely, reliability, responsiveness and recovery. Work to date in this field has developed and tested the model in two different rural locations. However, there may be underlying factors in rural areas which cause the correlation between customer satisfaction and loyalty behaviour to be overstated. Therefore, to control for the possibly distorting effects of rurality, the purpose of this paper is to examine the loyalty responses of urban service-users.

– Using the critical incident technique a study of young, relatively affluent women was carried out in a city-centre in Scotland. The study was carried out in spring 2014 over a one-week period. Results were analysed using qualitative analysis software.

– Results confirmed the validity of the three Rs model. Findings demonstrate that the model is valid for different population densities.

Research limitations/implications
– The qualitative method yields rich, insightful data, but the results cannot be generalised to a wider population. The findings provide service providers with a clear set of quality dimensions used by respondents to evaluate their service experiences. Loyalty behaviours were found to be highly responsive to quality evaluations; both repeat purchase intentions and WOM behaviours are highly quality-elastic.

Practical implications
– The results confirm that a business which provides the quality of service which customers expected to receive, which demonstrates responsiveness to customer needs and which remedies failings in service delivery appropriately, will benefit from increased loyalty and WOM recommendations. Those which fail to provide these three essential elements will suffer loss of loyalty and incur negative WOM.

– A clear set of dimensions is presented which reflect service priorities of consumers.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalThe TQM Journal
Issue number3
Early online date3 Mar 2016
Publication statusPublished - 11 Apr 2016


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