Territorial markings as a predictor of driver aggression and road rage

William J. Szlemko, Jacob A. Benfield, Paul A. Bell, Jerry L. Deffenbacher, Lucy Troup

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Aggressive driving has received substantial media coverage during the past decade.We report 3 studies testing a territorial explanation of aggressive driving. Altman(1975) described attachment to, personalization of, and defense of primary territories (e.g., home) as being greater than for public territories (e.g., sunbathing spot on a beach). Aggressive driving may occur when social norms for defending a primary territory (i.e., one’s automobile) become confused with less aggressive norms for defending a public territory (i.e., the road). Both number of territory markers (e.g.,bumper stickers, decals) and attachment to the vehicle were significant predictors of aggressive driving. Mere presence of a territory marker predicts increased use of the vehicle to express anger and decreased use of adaptive/constructive expressions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1664-1688
Number of pages25
JournalJournal of Applied Social Psychology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes


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