We have used primary human muscle cell cultures to investigate the role of glycogen loading in cellular insulin resistance. Insulin pre-treatment for 2 h markedly impaired insulin signaling, as assessed by protein kinase B (PKB) phosphorylation. In contrast, insulin-dependent glycogen synthesis, glycogen synthase (GS) activation, and GS sites 3 de-phosphorylation were impaired only after 5 h of insulin pre-treatment, whereas 2-deoxyglucose transport was only decreased after 18 h pre-treatment. Insulin-resistant glycogen synthesis was associated closely with maximal glycogen loading. Both glucose limitation and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) treatment during insulin pre-treatment curtailed glycogen accumulation, and concomitantly restored insulin-sensitive glycogen synthesis and GS activation, although GS de-phosphorylation and PKB phosphorylation remained impaired. Conversely, glycogen super-compensation diminished insulin-sensitive glycogen synthesis and GS activity. Insulin acutely promoted GS translocation to particulate subcellular fractions; this was abolished by insulin pre-treatment, as was GS dephosphorylation therein. Limiting glycogen accumulation during insulin pre-treatment re-instated GS dephosphorylation in particulate fractions, whereas glycogen super-compensation prevented insulin-stimulated GS translocation and dephosphorylation. Our data suggest that diminished insulin signaling alone is insufficient to impair glucose disposal, and indicate a role for glycogen accumulation in inducing insulin resistance in human muscle cells.
Litherland, G. J., Morris, N. J., Walker, M., & Yeaman, S. J. (2007). Role of glycogen content in insulin resistance in human muscle cells. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 211(2), 344-352. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.20942