RF-based moisture content determination in rice using machine learning techniques

Noraini Azmi, Latifah Munirah Kamarudin*, Ammar Zakaria, David Lorater Ndzi, Mohd Hafiz Fazalul Rahiman, Syed Muhammad Mamduh Syed Zakaria, Latifah Mohamed

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)
17 Downloads (Pure)


Seasonal crops require reliable storage conditions to protect the yield once harvested. For long term storage, controlling the moisture content level in grains is challenging because existing moisture measuring techniques are time-consuming and laborious as measurements are carried out manually. The measurements are carried out using a sample and moisture may be une-venly distributed inside the silo/bin. Numerous studies have been conducted to measure the moisture content in grains utilising dielectric properties. To the best of authors’ knowledge, the utilisation of low-cost wireless technology operating in the 2.4 GHz and 915 MHz ISM bands such as Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) have not been widely investigated. This study focuses on the characterisation of 2.4 GHz Radio Frequency (RF) transceivers using ZigBee Standard and 868 to 915 MHz UHF RFID transceiver for moisture content classification and prediction using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models. The Re-ceived Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) from the wireless transceivers is used for moisture con-tent prediction in rice. Four samples (2 kg of rice each) were conditioned to 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% moisture contents. The RSSI from both systems were obtained and processed. The processed data is used as input to different ANNs models such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), Random Forest, and Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP). The results show that the Random Forest method with one input feature (RSSI_WSN) provides the highest accuracy of 87% compared to the other four models. All models show more than 98% accuracy when two input features (RSSI_WSN and RSSI_TAG2) are used. Hence, Random Forest is a relia-ble model that can be used to predict the moisture content level in rice as it gives a high accuracy even when only one input feature is used.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1875
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 8 Mar 2021


  • moisture content measurement
  • neural network
  • smart farming
  • double frequency
  • grain moisture content
  • radio frequency


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