Reliable and flexible steam and power system design

Li Sun, Chang Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Steam and power systems should be designed with high reliability and flexibility to satisfy process energy and power demands and reduce penalty costs due to equipment failures and steam and power demand variations. Uncertainties of equipment failure and flexible process steam and power demands have different impacts on system reliability, steam and power generation, individual equipment operation performance, and process production loss due to utility deficits. Measures adopted to respond to uncertainties implementation include compensation options of equipment operating load sharing, equipment startup, and equipment (in failure) repair, and penalties both of electricity import from the grid and production loss. This paper has proposed a procedure of the system design based on simultaneously modelling and optimizing of the structure and operation with system reliability analysis, and a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is formulated associated with compensation costs and penalty costs to obtain both system configuration with spare equipment (in hot or cold standby) and spare capacities, and operating scheduling specification to account for equipment failures and process steam and power demand fluctuations. In this optimization, the effect of equipment failures on system operation performance and costs is analyzed by system reliability, and uncertain steam and power demands are formulated by a multi-period stochastic programming. A case study shows the application and effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)184-191
Number of pages8
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
Early online date12 Dec 2014
Publication statusPublished - 25 Mar 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Steam and power systems
  • Failure
  • Reliability
  • Scheduling
  • Uncertainty


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