Recombinant human growth hormone in abstinent androgenic-anabolic steroid use: psychological, endocrine and trophic factor effects

Michael R. Graham, Bruce Davies, Andrew Kicman, David Cowan, David Hullin, Julien S. Baker

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12 Citations (Scopus)


This study examined whether six days recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) affected psychological profile in an abstinent androgenic-anabolic steroid (AAS) abusing group, compared with an abstinent AAS control group. Male subjects (n = 48) were assigned in a random fashion into one of two groups: (1): (n =24) control group (C); (2): (n =24) rhGH group (GH). A hospital anxiety scale (HADS) questionnaire was completed by all subjects. Physiological responses investigated included anthropometry. Biochemical markers examined included; serum glucose, sodium, urea, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), homocysteine (HCY), tetra-iodothyronine (T4), thyroid stimulating (TSH), luteinising (LH) and follicle stimulating (FSH) hormones, testosterone (T), prolactin (PRL), cortisol and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-I). HADS questionnaire significantly decreased in both anxiety (A) and depression (D) symptoms within GH (P < 0.017) and compared with C (P < 0.05). Body mass index (BMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) significantly increased (both P < 0.017) while body fat significantly decreased within GH (P < 0.017). IGF-I significantly increased within GH (P < 0.017) and significantly increased compared with C (P < 0.05). Serum sodium significantly increased (P < 0.017) and serum HCY, hsCRP, TSH and T4, significantly decreased within GH (all P < 0.017). PRL significantly increased and T4 significantly decreased compared with C (both P < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that short term use of rhGH has beneficial effects on mental state in individuals who were previous abusers of AAS and appeared to have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk markers associated with adverse mental health.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9-18
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent Neurovascular Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • anxiety
  • body composition
  • cardiovascular
  • depression
  • psychology
  • insulin-like growth factor-I


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