Randomised clinical study: inulin short-chain fatty acid esters for targeted delivery of short-chain fatty acids to the human colon

T. Polyviou, K. Macdougall, E.S. Chambers, A. Viardot, A. Psichas, S. Jawaid, H.C. Harris, C.A. Edwards, L. Simpson, K.G. Murphy, S.E.K. Zac-Varghese, J.E. Blundell, W.S. Dhillo, S.R. Bloom, G.S. Frost, T. Preston, Catriona Tedford, D.J. Morrison

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37 Citations (Scopus)


Background Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced through fermentation of nondigestible carbohydrates by the gut microbiota are associated with positive metabolic effects. However, well-controlled trials are limited in humans. Aims To develop a methodology to deliver SCFA directly to the colon, and to optimise colonic propionate delivery in humans, to determine its role in appetite regulation and food intake. Methods Inulin SCFA esters were developed and tested as site-specific delivery vehicles for SCFA to the proximal colon. Inulin propionate esters containing 0–61 wt% (IPE-0–IPE-61) propionate were assessed in vitro using batch faecal fermentations. In a randomised, controlled, crossover study, with inulin as control, ad libitum food intake (kcal) was compared after 7 days on IPE-27 or IPE-54 (10 g/day all treatments). Propionate release was determined using 13C-labelled IPE variants. Results In vitro, IPE-27–IPE-54 wt% propionate resulted in a sevenfold increase in propionate production compared with inulin (P < 0.05). In vivo, IPE-27 led to greater 13C recovery in breath CO2 than IPE-54 (64.9 vs. 24.9%, P = 0.001). IPE-27 also led to a reduction in energy intake during the ad libitum test meal compared with both inulin (439.5 vs. 703.9 kcal, P = 0.025) and IPE-54 (439.5 vs. 659.3 kcal, P = 0.025), whereas IPE-54 was not significantly different from inulin control. Conclusions IPE-27 significantly reduced food intake suggesting colonic propionate plays a role in appetite regulation. Inulin short-chain fatty acid esters provide a novel tool for probing the diet–gut microbiome–host metabolism axis in humans.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)662-672
JournalAlimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Issue number7
Early online date28 Jul 2016
Publication statusPublished - 4 Sept 2016


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