Nature is full of various nanomaterials and nanostructures that have inspired and helped human life and civilization in the advancement of science and technology. Among these materials are clays, which are abundantly found in rocks and earth structures. The mineral montmorillonite, known as a clay nanoparticle, is the major phase in bentonite. This nanoclay, with a thickness of about 10 angstroms, includes unique properties such as expansion, high specific surface area, electrical properties, cation exchange capacity, and has found applications in industry and research. Amongst its uses are the basis for catalytic filler reactions and its application in the removal of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from the environment. This study includes many reports related to purified montmorillonite as a nano-adsorbent, particularly for the removal of a range of PTEs from the environment. In addition, the review considers sources, special structural features, as well as the different forms of montmorillonite, whether modified or unmodified, as ecofriendly components for environmental treatment.
- potentially toxic elements
- environmental pollution