Prevalence of anaemia and the relationship between haemoglobin concentration and CD4 count in HIV positive children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Lagos, Nigeria

Regina Esiovwa, Jeanie Rankin, Agatha David, Agatha Wapmuk, Elizabeth Disu, Yetunde Balogun, Adebukola Adetunji, Ewan MacArthur, Olufemi Amoo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BackgroundAnaemia is commonly reported among people living with HIV, however the prevalence of anaemia in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) experienced Nigerian children has not been well defined. This study addressed this gap and evaluated the relationship between haemoglobin concentration and CD4 count in the presence of HAART.
MethodParticipants (n=164) were aged between 5 and 12 years, living with HIV and had received HAART for a minimum of 12 months. All participants were outpatients at two HIV treatment centres in Lagos, Nigeria. Haemoglobin concentration and CD4 count were determined as part of baseline measurements for an ongoing randomized controlled multivitamin study (NCT02552602). Prevalence of anaemia and immune deficiency were determined based on haemoglobin concentration and CD4 count (respectively) of study participants. Pearson correlation was used to evaluate the correlation between haemoglobin concentration and CD4 count. T test was used to determine if statistical differences in haemoglobin concentration existed among participants with immune deficiency and no significant immune deficiency.
ResultAt 54.2%, anaemia was still highly prevalent in HAART experienced children in Lagos, Nigeria. The prevalence of anaemia among immune deficient participants (CD4 count <500 cells/ mm3) was not significantly different from the prevalence of anaemia among participants with no significant immune deficiency (CD4 count ≥ 500 cells/mm3) (52% v 55%, Pearson Chi- Square, P= 0.783). Haemoglobin concentration was not significantly correlated with CD4 count (Pearson correlation (r) = 0.081, P = 0.302) and haemoglobin concentration could not be used as a predictor of immune status (Binary logistic regression, OR 1.461, 95% CI 0.866 – 2.464, P= 0.16).
ConclusionDespite HAART use, anaemia is still highly prevalent among HIV positive children in Lagos, Nigeria. With the known negative influence of anaemia on HIV disease progression, it is important that measures to address anaemia in these children are evaluated and implemented.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)29-36
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Paediatric Research
Volume20
Issue number1
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 6 Apr 2016

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Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Nigeria
Anemia
Hemoglobins
HIV
Disease Progression
Outpatients
Logistic Models

Keywords

  • HIV
  • anaemia
  • haemoglobin
  • CD4 count
  • Nigeria

Cite this

Esiovwa, Regina ; Rankin, Jeanie ; David, Agatha ; Wapmuk, Agatha ; Disu, Elizabeth ; Balogun, Yetunde ; Adetunji, Adebukola ; MacArthur, Ewan ; Amoo, Olufemi. / Prevalence of anaemia and the relationship between haemoglobin concentration and CD4 count in HIV positive children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Lagos, Nigeria. In: Current Paediatric Research. 2016 ; Vol. 20, No. 1. pp. 29-36.
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abstract = "BackgroundAnaemia is commonly reported among people living with HIV, however the prevalence of anaemia in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) experienced Nigerian children has not been well defined. This study addressed this gap and evaluated the relationship between haemoglobin concentration and CD4 count in the presence of HAART.MethodParticipants (n=164) were aged between 5 and 12 years, living with HIV and had received HAART for a minimum of 12 months. All participants were outpatients at two HIV treatment centres in Lagos, Nigeria. Haemoglobin concentration and CD4 count were determined as part of baseline measurements for an ongoing randomized controlled multivitamin study (NCT02552602). Prevalence of anaemia and immune deficiency were determined based on haemoglobin concentration and CD4 count (respectively) of study participants. Pearson correlation was used to evaluate the correlation between haemoglobin concentration and CD4 count. T test was used to determine if statistical differences in haemoglobin concentration existed among participants with immune deficiency and no significant immune deficiency.ResultAt 54.2{\%}, anaemia was still highly prevalent in HAART experienced children in Lagos, Nigeria. The prevalence of anaemia among immune deficient participants (CD4 count <500 cells/ mm3) was not significantly different from the prevalence of anaemia among participants with no significant immune deficiency (CD4 count ≥ 500 cells/mm3) (52{\%} v 55{\%}, Pearson Chi- Square, P= 0.783). Haemoglobin concentration was not significantly correlated with CD4 count (Pearson correlation (r) = 0.081, P = 0.302) and haemoglobin concentration could not be used as a predictor of immune status (Binary logistic regression, OR 1.461, 95{\%} CI 0.866 – 2.464, P= 0.16).ConclusionDespite HAART use, anaemia is still highly prevalent among HIV positive children in Lagos, Nigeria. With the known negative influence of anaemia on HIV disease progression, it is important that measures to address anaemia in these children are evaluated and implemented.",
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Prevalence of anaemia and the relationship between haemoglobin concentration and CD4 count in HIV positive children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Lagos, Nigeria. / Esiovwa, Regina; Rankin, Jeanie; David, Agatha; Wapmuk, Agatha; Disu, Elizabeth; Balogun, Yetunde; Adetunji, Adebukola; MacArthur, Ewan; Amoo, Olufemi.

In: Current Paediatric Research, Vol. 20, No. 1, 06.04.2016, p. 29-36.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Prevalence of anaemia and the relationship between haemoglobin concentration and CD4 count in HIV positive children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Lagos, Nigeria

AU - Esiovwa, Regina

AU - Rankin, Jeanie

AU - David, Agatha

AU - Wapmuk, Agatha

AU - Disu, Elizabeth

AU - Balogun, Yetunde

AU - Adetunji, Adebukola

AU - MacArthur, Ewan

AU - Amoo, Olufemi

PY - 2016/4/6

Y1 - 2016/4/6

N2 - BackgroundAnaemia is commonly reported among people living with HIV, however the prevalence of anaemia in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) experienced Nigerian children has not been well defined. This study addressed this gap and evaluated the relationship between haemoglobin concentration and CD4 count in the presence of HAART.MethodParticipants (n=164) were aged between 5 and 12 years, living with HIV and had received HAART for a minimum of 12 months. All participants were outpatients at two HIV treatment centres in Lagos, Nigeria. Haemoglobin concentration and CD4 count were determined as part of baseline measurements for an ongoing randomized controlled multivitamin study (NCT02552602). Prevalence of anaemia and immune deficiency were determined based on haemoglobin concentration and CD4 count (respectively) of study participants. Pearson correlation was used to evaluate the correlation between haemoglobin concentration and CD4 count. T test was used to determine if statistical differences in haemoglobin concentration existed among participants with immune deficiency and no significant immune deficiency.ResultAt 54.2%, anaemia was still highly prevalent in HAART experienced children in Lagos, Nigeria. The prevalence of anaemia among immune deficient participants (CD4 count <500 cells/ mm3) was not significantly different from the prevalence of anaemia among participants with no significant immune deficiency (CD4 count ≥ 500 cells/mm3) (52% v 55%, Pearson Chi- Square, P= 0.783). Haemoglobin concentration was not significantly correlated with CD4 count (Pearson correlation (r) = 0.081, P = 0.302) and haemoglobin concentration could not be used as a predictor of immune status (Binary logistic regression, OR 1.461, 95% CI 0.866 – 2.464, P= 0.16).ConclusionDespite HAART use, anaemia is still highly prevalent among HIV positive children in Lagos, Nigeria. With the known negative influence of anaemia on HIV disease progression, it is important that measures to address anaemia in these children are evaluated and implemented.

AB - BackgroundAnaemia is commonly reported among people living with HIV, however the prevalence of anaemia in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) experienced Nigerian children has not been well defined. This study addressed this gap and evaluated the relationship between haemoglobin concentration and CD4 count in the presence of HAART.MethodParticipants (n=164) were aged between 5 and 12 years, living with HIV and had received HAART for a minimum of 12 months. All participants were outpatients at two HIV treatment centres in Lagos, Nigeria. Haemoglobin concentration and CD4 count were determined as part of baseline measurements for an ongoing randomized controlled multivitamin study (NCT02552602). Prevalence of anaemia and immune deficiency were determined based on haemoglobin concentration and CD4 count (respectively) of study participants. Pearson correlation was used to evaluate the correlation between haemoglobin concentration and CD4 count. T test was used to determine if statistical differences in haemoglobin concentration existed among participants with immune deficiency and no significant immune deficiency.ResultAt 54.2%, anaemia was still highly prevalent in HAART experienced children in Lagos, Nigeria. The prevalence of anaemia among immune deficient participants (CD4 count <500 cells/ mm3) was not significantly different from the prevalence of anaemia among participants with no significant immune deficiency (CD4 count ≥ 500 cells/mm3) (52% v 55%, Pearson Chi- Square, P= 0.783). Haemoglobin concentration was not significantly correlated with CD4 count (Pearson correlation (r) = 0.081, P = 0.302) and haemoglobin concentration could not be used as a predictor of immune status (Binary logistic regression, OR 1.461, 95% CI 0.866 – 2.464, P= 0.16).ConclusionDespite HAART use, anaemia is still highly prevalent among HIV positive children in Lagos, Nigeria. With the known negative influence of anaemia on HIV disease progression, it is important that measures to address anaemia in these children are evaluated and implemented.

KW - HIV

KW - anaemia

KW - haemoglobin

KW - CD4 count

KW - Nigeria

M3 - Article

VL - 20

SP - 29

EP - 36

JO - Current Paediatric Research

JF - Current Paediatric Research

SN - 0971-9032

IS - 1

ER -