In Scotland in recent years there has been growing interest in a more playâ€�based pedagogy commonly described as Active Learning. The research reported in this article is an exploration of moves towards creating an active playâ€�based learning environment in six Primary 1 classrooms in Scotland and is concerned with (i) the childrenâ€™s experiences in such a playâ€�based active learning environment in school and (ii) their teachersâ€™ perspectives on this pedagogical innovation and their roles in supporting the learners. This study examined experiences and perspectives within and across each of the six childâ€�centred and playâ€�focused classes. The main findings suggest that the role of the teacher varies between what could be considered as teacherâ€�intensive and teacherâ€�initiated activities. â€˜Activeâ€™ or â€˜playâ€�basedâ€™ learning was interpreted differently by teachers; play in some classrooms was peripheral rather than integral to the learning process and curriculumâ€�embedded.