Petrography of historic mortar materials: polarising light microscopy as a method for characterising lime-based mortars

Kristin Balksten, Bo Nitz, John J. Hughes, Jan-Erik Lindqvist

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

16 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

In studying historic, repair and restoration mortars comprised of lime-based material there is an analytical method that answers more questions than any other; transmitted (and reflected) polarised light microscopy (PLM). The present study is based on thin-section analysis of historic and restoration mortars made by the authors in Sweden and Scotland since the 1980’s, previous research [1, 2, 3, 4] and petrographic atlases [5, 6, 7, 8]. This paper is written to be a pedagogically useful complement to previous work.

We present a selection of microphotographs to show the variety of questions that the method can give answers to, such as, in the study of:
-lime binder; source materials, hydraulicity, slaking methods, lime lumps, cracking characteristics
-aggregates; grading, mineralogy/lithology and texture
-additives; inorganic puzzolanic materials and organic materials
-paint layers; different binders, pigments, thicknesses
-pore structure; durability, vapour transport and capillarity
-craftsmanship; various application and working techniques

The aim of this paper is to contribute with more illustrations of reference materials and to illustrate the usefulness of Polarising Light Microscopy as a method for characterising lime-based mortars and to review the most significant analyses parameters.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 5th Historic Mortars Conference
Subtitle of host publicationRILEM Proceedings PRO 130
EditorsJose Ignacio Alvarez, Jose Maria Fernandez, Inigo Navarro , Adrian Duran, Rafael Sirera
Place of PublicationParis
PublisherRILEM Publications S.A.R.L.
Pages453-467
Number of pages15
VolumePRO 130
ISBN (Electronic)9782351582220
ISBN (Print)9782351582213
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jul 2019
Event5th Historic Mortars Conference 2019 - Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
Duration: 19 Jun 201921 Jun 2019
Conference number: 5
https://www.unav.edu/en/web/historic-mortars-conference

Publication series

NameRILEM Proceedings
PublisherRILEM Publications S.A.R.L.
Volume130

Conference

Conference5th Historic Mortars Conference 2019
Abbreviated titleHMC 2019
CountrySpain
CityPamplona
Period19/06/1921/06/19
Internet address

Fingerprint

Petrography
Mortar
Optical microscopy
Restoration
Binders
Lithology
Mineralogy
Capillarity
Light polarization
Pore structure
Pigments
Paint
Durability
Repair
Textures
Vapors
lime

Keywords

  • Historic Mortar
  • petrography

Cite this

Balksten, K., Nitz, B., Hughes, J. J., & Lindqvist, J-E. (2019). Petrography of historic mortar materials: polarising light microscopy as a method for characterising lime-based mortars. In J. I. Alvarez, J. M. Fernandez, I. N., A. Duran, & R. Sirera (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th Historic Mortars Conference: RILEM Proceedings PRO 130 (Vol. PRO 130, pp. 453-467). (RILEM Proceedings; Vol. 130). Paris: RILEM Publications S.A.R.L..
Balksten, Kristin ; Nitz, Bo ; Hughes, John J. ; Lindqvist, Jan-Erik. / Petrography of historic mortar materials : polarising light microscopy as a method for characterising lime-based mortars. Proceedings of the 5th Historic Mortars Conference: RILEM Proceedings PRO 130. editor / Jose Ignacio Alvarez ; Jose Maria Fernandez ; Inigo Navarro ; Adrian Duran ; Rafael Sirera. Vol. PRO 130 Paris : RILEM Publications S.A.R.L., 2019. pp. 453-467 (RILEM Proceedings).
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abstract = "In studying historic, repair and restoration mortars comprised of lime-based material there is an analytical method that answers more questions than any other; transmitted (and reflected) polarised light microscopy (PLM). The present study is based on thin-section analysis of historic and restoration mortars made by the authors in Sweden and Scotland since the 1980’s, previous research [1, 2, 3, 4] and petrographic atlases [5, 6, 7, 8]. This paper is written to be a pedagogically useful complement to previous work.We present a selection of microphotographs to show the variety of questions that the method can give answers to, such as, in the study of:-lime binder; source materials, hydraulicity, slaking methods, lime lumps, cracking characteristics-aggregates; grading, mineralogy/lithology and texture-additives; inorganic puzzolanic materials and organic materials-paint layers; different binders, pigments, thicknesses -pore structure; durability, vapour transport and capillarity-craftsmanship; various application and working techniquesThe aim of this paper is to contribute with more illustrations of reference materials and to illustrate the usefulness of Polarising Light Microscopy as a method for characterising lime-based mortars and to review the most significant analyses parameters.",
keywords = "Historic Mortar, petrography",
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Balksten, K, Nitz, B, Hughes, JJ & Lindqvist, J-E 2019, Petrography of historic mortar materials: polarising light microscopy as a method for characterising lime-based mortars. in JI Alvarez, JM Fernandez, IN, A Duran & R Sirera (eds), Proceedings of the 5th Historic Mortars Conference: RILEM Proceedings PRO 130. vol. PRO 130, RILEM Proceedings, vol. 130, RILEM Publications S.A.R.L., Paris, pp. 453-467, 5th Historic Mortars Conference 2019, Pamplona, Spain, 19/06/19.

Petrography of historic mortar materials : polarising light microscopy as a method for characterising lime-based mortars. / Balksten, Kristin ; Nitz, Bo ; Hughes, John J.; Lindqvist, Jan-Erik.

Proceedings of the 5th Historic Mortars Conference: RILEM Proceedings PRO 130. ed. / Jose Ignacio Alvarez; Jose Maria Fernandez; Inigo Navarro; Adrian Duran; Rafael Sirera. Vol. PRO 130 Paris : RILEM Publications S.A.R.L., 2019. p. 453-467 (RILEM Proceedings; Vol. 130).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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T1 - Petrography of historic mortar materials

T2 - polarising light microscopy as a method for characterising lime-based mortars

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AU - Nitz, Bo

AU - Hughes, John J.

AU - Lindqvist, Jan-Erik

PY - 2019/7/16

Y1 - 2019/7/16

N2 - In studying historic, repair and restoration mortars comprised of lime-based material there is an analytical method that answers more questions than any other; transmitted (and reflected) polarised light microscopy (PLM). The present study is based on thin-section analysis of historic and restoration mortars made by the authors in Sweden and Scotland since the 1980’s, previous research [1, 2, 3, 4] and petrographic atlases [5, 6, 7, 8]. This paper is written to be a pedagogically useful complement to previous work.We present a selection of microphotographs to show the variety of questions that the method can give answers to, such as, in the study of:-lime binder; source materials, hydraulicity, slaking methods, lime lumps, cracking characteristics-aggregates; grading, mineralogy/lithology and texture-additives; inorganic puzzolanic materials and organic materials-paint layers; different binders, pigments, thicknesses -pore structure; durability, vapour transport and capillarity-craftsmanship; various application and working techniquesThe aim of this paper is to contribute with more illustrations of reference materials and to illustrate the usefulness of Polarising Light Microscopy as a method for characterising lime-based mortars and to review the most significant analyses parameters.

AB - In studying historic, repair and restoration mortars comprised of lime-based material there is an analytical method that answers more questions than any other; transmitted (and reflected) polarised light microscopy (PLM). The present study is based on thin-section analysis of historic and restoration mortars made by the authors in Sweden and Scotland since the 1980’s, previous research [1, 2, 3, 4] and petrographic atlases [5, 6, 7, 8]. This paper is written to be a pedagogically useful complement to previous work.We present a selection of microphotographs to show the variety of questions that the method can give answers to, such as, in the study of:-lime binder; source materials, hydraulicity, slaking methods, lime lumps, cracking characteristics-aggregates; grading, mineralogy/lithology and texture-additives; inorganic puzzolanic materials and organic materials-paint layers; different binders, pigments, thicknesses -pore structure; durability, vapour transport and capillarity-craftsmanship; various application and working techniquesThe aim of this paper is to contribute with more illustrations of reference materials and to illustrate the usefulness of Polarising Light Microscopy as a method for characterising lime-based mortars and to review the most significant analyses parameters.

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KW - petrography

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SN - 9782351582213

VL - PRO 130

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BT - Proceedings of the 5th Historic Mortars Conference

A2 - Alvarez, Jose Ignacio

A2 - Fernandez, Jose Maria

A2 - , Inigo Navarro

A2 - Duran, Adrian

A2 - Sirera, Rafael

PB - RILEM Publications S.A.R.L.

CY - Paris

ER -

Balksten K, Nitz B, Hughes JJ, Lindqvist J-E. Petrography of historic mortar materials: polarising light microscopy as a method for characterising lime-based mortars. In Alvarez JI, Fernandez JM, IN, Duran A, Sirera R, editors, Proceedings of the 5th Historic Mortars Conference: RILEM Proceedings PRO 130. Vol. PRO 130. Paris: RILEM Publications S.A.R.L. 2019. p. 453-467. (RILEM Proceedings).