The control of infectious diseases can be improved via carefully designed decontamination equipment and systems. Research interest in ozone (a powerful antimicrobial agent) has significantly increased over the past decade. The COVID-19 pandemic has also instigated the development of new ozone-based technologies for the decontamination of personal protective equipment, surfaces, materials, and indoor environments. As this interest continues to grow, it is necessary to consider key factors affecting the applicability of lab-based findings to large-scale systems utilizing ozone. In this review, we present recent developments on the critical factors affecting the successful deployments of industrial ozone technologies. Some of these include the medium of application (air or water), material compatibility, efficient circulation and extraction, measurement and control, automation, scalability, and process economics. We also provide a comparative assessment of ozone relative to other decontamination methods/sterilization technologies and further substantiate the necessity for increased developments in gaseous and aqueous ozonation. Modeling methodologies, which can be applied for the design and implementation of ozone contacting systems, are also presented in this review. Key knowledge gaps and open research problems/opportunities are extensively covered including our recommendations for the development of novel solutions with industrial importance.
- antimicrobial activity
- organic relations