On the Traffic Offloading in Wi-Fi Supported Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

Ali Riza Ekti, Muhammad Zeeshan Shakir, Erchin Serpedin, Khalid A. Qaraqe, Muhammad A. Imran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Heterogeneous small cell networks (HetSNet) comprise several low power, low cost (SBSa), (D2D) enabled links wireless-fidelity (Wi-Fi) access points (APs) to support the existing macrocell infrastructure, decrease over the air signaling and energy consumption, and increase network capacity, data rate and coverage. This paper presents an active user dependent path loss (PL) based traffic offloading (TO) strategy for HetSNets and a comparative study on two techniques to offload the traffic from macrocell to (SBSs) for indoor environments: PL and signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) based strategies. To quantify the improvements, the PL based strategy against the SIR based strategy is compared while considering various macrocell and (SBS) coverage areas and traffic–types. On the other hand, offloading in a dense urban setting may result in overcrowding the (SBSs). Therefore, hybrid traffic–type driven offloading technologies such as (WiFi) and (D2D) were proposed to en route the delay tolerant applications through (WiFi) (APs) and (D2D) links. It is necessary to illustrate the impact of daily user traffic profile, (SBSs) access schemes and traffic–type while deciding how much of the traffic should be offloaded to (SBSs). In this context, (AUPF) is introduced to account for the population of active small cells which depends on the variable traffic load due to the active users.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)225-240
JournalJournal of Signal Processing Systems for Signal, Image, and Video Technology
Issue number2
Early online date31 Oct 2015
Publication statusPublished - May 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Heterogeneous networks
  • Small cells
  • Wi-Fi
  • WiGig
  • Wi-Fi Direct
  • Traffic offloading
  • Active user population factor
  • Path loss


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