Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells

Susan C. Fitzer, Wenzhong Zhu, K. Elizabeth Tanner, Vernon R. Phoenix, Nicholas A. Kamenos, Maggie Cusack

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Ocean acidification (OA) and the resultant changing carbonate saturation states is threatening the formation of calcium carbonate shells and exoskeletons of marine organisms. The production of biominerals in such organisms relies on the availability of carbonate and the ability of the organism to biomineralize in changing environments. To understand how biomineralizers will respond to OA the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was cultured at projected levels of pCO(2) (380, 550, 750, 1000 mu atm) and increased temperatures (ambient, ambient plus 2 degrees C). Nanoindentation (a single mussel shell) and microhardness testing were used to assess the material properties of the shells. Young's modulus (E), hardness (H) and toughness (K-IC) were measured in mussel shells grown in multiple stressor conditions. OA caused mussels to produce shell calcite that is stiffer (higher modulus of elasticity) and harder than shells grown in control conditions. The outer shell (calcite) is more brittle in OA conditions while the inner shell (aragonite) is softer and less stiff in shells grown under OA conditions. Combining increasing ocean pCO(2) and temperatures as projected for future global ocean appears to reduce the impact of increasing pCO(2) on the material properties of the mussel shell. OA may cause changes in shell material properties that could prove problematic under predation scenarios for the mussels; however, this may be partially mitigated by increasing temperature.
Original languageEnglish
Article number20141227
JournalJournal of the Royal Society Interface
Volume12
Issue number103
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Feb 2015

Keywords

  • biomineralization
  • ocean acidification
  • temperature
  • mussels
  • CO2
  • multiple stressors

Cite this

Fitzer, S. C., Zhu, W., Tanner, K. E., Phoenix, V. R., Kamenos, N. A., & Cusack, M. (2015). Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 12(103), [20141227]. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2014.1227
Fitzer, Susan C. ; Zhu, Wenzhong ; Tanner, K. Elizabeth ; Phoenix, Vernon R. ; Kamenos, Nicholas A. ; Cusack, Maggie. / Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells. In: Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 2015 ; Vol. 12, No. 103.
@article{f19ffd6b22aa43e89b8da37056c6cf65,
title = "Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells",
abstract = "Ocean acidification (OA) and the resultant changing carbonate saturation states is threatening the formation of calcium carbonate shells and exoskeletons of marine organisms. The production of biominerals in such organisms relies on the availability of carbonate and the ability of the organism to biomineralize in changing environments. To understand how biomineralizers will respond to OA the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was cultured at projected levels of pCO(2) (380, 550, 750, 1000 mu atm) and increased temperatures (ambient, ambient plus 2 degrees C). Nanoindentation (a single mussel shell) and microhardness testing were used to assess the material properties of the shells. Young's modulus (E), hardness (H) and toughness (K-IC) were measured in mussel shells grown in multiple stressor conditions. OA caused mussels to produce shell calcite that is stiffer (higher modulus of elasticity) and harder than shells grown in control conditions. The outer shell (calcite) is more brittle in OA conditions while the inner shell (aragonite) is softer and less stiff in shells grown under OA conditions. Combining increasing ocean pCO(2) and temperatures as projected for future global ocean appears to reduce the impact of increasing pCO(2) on the material properties of the mussel shell. OA may cause changes in shell material properties that could prove problematic under predation scenarios for the mussels; however, this may be partially mitigated by increasing temperature.",
keywords = "biomineralization, ocean acidification, temperature, mussels, CO2, multiple stressors",
author = "Fitzer, {Susan C.} and Wenzhong Zhu and Tanner, {K. Elizabeth} and Phoenix, {Vernon R.} and Kamenos, {Nicholas A.} and Maggie Cusack",
year = "2015",
month = "2",
day = "6",
doi = "10.1098/rsif.2014.1227",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
journal = "Journal of the Royal Society Interface",
issn = "1742-5689",
publisher = "The Royal Society",
number = "103",

}

Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells. / Fitzer, Susan C.; Zhu, Wenzhong; Tanner, K. Elizabeth; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Kamenos, Nicholas A.; Cusack, Maggie.

In: Journal of the Royal Society Interface, Vol. 12, No. 103, 20141227, 06.02.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells

AU - Fitzer, Susan C.

AU - Zhu, Wenzhong

AU - Tanner, K. Elizabeth

AU - Phoenix, Vernon R.

AU - Kamenos, Nicholas A.

AU - Cusack, Maggie

PY - 2015/2/6

Y1 - 2015/2/6

N2 - Ocean acidification (OA) and the resultant changing carbonate saturation states is threatening the formation of calcium carbonate shells and exoskeletons of marine organisms. The production of biominerals in such organisms relies on the availability of carbonate and the ability of the organism to biomineralize in changing environments. To understand how biomineralizers will respond to OA the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was cultured at projected levels of pCO(2) (380, 550, 750, 1000 mu atm) and increased temperatures (ambient, ambient plus 2 degrees C). Nanoindentation (a single mussel shell) and microhardness testing were used to assess the material properties of the shells. Young's modulus (E), hardness (H) and toughness (K-IC) were measured in mussel shells grown in multiple stressor conditions. OA caused mussels to produce shell calcite that is stiffer (higher modulus of elasticity) and harder than shells grown in control conditions. The outer shell (calcite) is more brittle in OA conditions while the inner shell (aragonite) is softer and less stiff in shells grown under OA conditions. Combining increasing ocean pCO(2) and temperatures as projected for future global ocean appears to reduce the impact of increasing pCO(2) on the material properties of the mussel shell. OA may cause changes in shell material properties that could prove problematic under predation scenarios for the mussels; however, this may be partially mitigated by increasing temperature.

AB - Ocean acidification (OA) and the resultant changing carbonate saturation states is threatening the formation of calcium carbonate shells and exoskeletons of marine organisms. The production of biominerals in such organisms relies on the availability of carbonate and the ability of the organism to biomineralize in changing environments. To understand how biomineralizers will respond to OA the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was cultured at projected levels of pCO(2) (380, 550, 750, 1000 mu atm) and increased temperatures (ambient, ambient plus 2 degrees C). Nanoindentation (a single mussel shell) and microhardness testing were used to assess the material properties of the shells. Young's modulus (E), hardness (H) and toughness (K-IC) were measured in mussel shells grown in multiple stressor conditions. OA caused mussels to produce shell calcite that is stiffer (higher modulus of elasticity) and harder than shells grown in control conditions. The outer shell (calcite) is more brittle in OA conditions while the inner shell (aragonite) is softer and less stiff in shells grown under OA conditions. Combining increasing ocean pCO(2) and temperatures as projected for future global ocean appears to reduce the impact of increasing pCO(2) on the material properties of the mussel shell. OA may cause changes in shell material properties that could prove problematic under predation scenarios for the mussels; however, this may be partially mitigated by increasing temperature.

KW - biomineralization

KW - ocean acidification

KW - temperature

KW - mussels

KW - CO2

KW - multiple stressors

U2 - 10.1098/rsif.2014.1227

DO - 10.1098/rsif.2014.1227

M3 - Article

VL - 12

JO - Journal of the Royal Society Interface

JF - Journal of the Royal Society Interface

SN - 1742-5689

IS - 103

M1 - 20141227

ER -