order to form biofilms. The formation of biofilms is associated with changes in bacterial behaviour such as reduced cellular metabolism and production of an obstructive extracellular matrix (ECM). Herein we discuss the mechanisms by which H. influenzae adheres to host airway epithelial cells to induce the formation of biofilms, the role these biofilms play in the pathogenesis of COPD and the mechanisms by which these cellular aggregates promote
persistence in the lungs through immune system evasion and antibiotic tolerance.
- Haemophilus influenzae
- chronic colonisation