This paper presents an overview of energy absorbers in the form of tubes in which the material used is predominantly mild steel and/or aluminium. A brief summary is also given of frusta type energy absorbers. The common modes of deformation such as lateral and axial compression, indentation and inversion are reviewed. Theoretical, numerical and experimental methods which help to understand the behaviour of such devices under various loading conditions are outlined. Although other forms of energy absorbing materials and structures exist such as composites and honeycombs, it is deemed outside the scope of this review. Nonetheless, a brief description will be given on these materials. It is hoped that this article will provide a useful platform for researchers and design engineers to gain a useful insight into the progress made over the last few decades in the field of tube type energy absorbers.
- Energy absorber
- Mild steel