Long-term aerobic exercise improves vascular function in old age: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta regression of observational and interventional studies

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Abstract

There is an emerging body of literature relating to the effectiveness of frequent aerobic exercise as a prophylactic for age-associated dysfunction of large arteries, yet systematic evaluation and precise estimate of this effect is unknown.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled studies examining flow mediated dilatation (FMD) of athletic older persons and otherwise healthy sedentary counterparts to (i) compare FMD as a determinant of endothelial function between athletes and sedentary (ii) summarise the effect of exercise training on FMD in studies of sedentary ageing persons. Studies were identified from systematic search of major electronic databases from inception to January 2018. Study quality was assessed before conducting a random effects meta-analysis to calculate a pooled ES (mean difference) with 95% CI’s. Thirteen studies [10 cross-sectional (n=485); 4 intervention (n=125] with age ranges from 62-75 years underwent quantitative pooling of data. 
Older athletes had more favourable FMD compared with sedentary controls (2.1%; CI:1.4%, 2.8%; P<0.001). There was no significant improvement in the vascular function of sedentary cohorts following a period of exercise training (0.7%; CI: -0.675%, 2.09%; P=0.316). However, there was a significant increase in baseline diameter from pre to post intervention (0.098%; CI: 0.066%, 0.130%; P<0.001). In addition, there was no significant difference in endothelial independent vasodilation between the trained and sedentary older adults (1.57%; CI: -0.13%, 3.27%; P=0.07), or from pre to post exercise intervention (1.48%; CI: -1.34%, 4.3%; P=0.3).
In conclusion, long-term aerobic exercise appears to attenuate the decline in endothelial vascular function, a benefit which is maintained during chronological ageing. However, currently there is not enough evidence to suggest that exercise interventions improve vascular function in previously sedentary healthy older adults.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages37
JournalFrontiers in Physiology
Early online date26 Feb 2019
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 26 Feb 2019

Fingerprint

Observational Studies
Blood Vessels
Meta-Analysis
Exercise
Dilatation
Athletes
Vasodilation
Sports
Arteries
Cross-Sectional Studies
Databases

Keywords

  • ageing
  • vascular health
  • flow mediated dilatation
  • exercise
  • systematic review
  • meta analysis

Cite this

@article{6876e58907da435ab178ebd5e824ef7d,
title = "Long-term aerobic exercise improves vascular function in old age: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta regression of observational and interventional studies",
abstract = "There is an emerging body of literature relating to the effectiveness of frequent aerobic exercise as a prophylactic for age-associated dysfunction of large arteries, yet systematic evaluation and precise estimate of this effect is unknown.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled studies examining flow mediated dilatation (FMD) of athletic older persons and otherwise healthy sedentary counterparts to (i) compare FMD as a determinant of endothelial function between athletes and sedentary (ii) summarise the effect of exercise training on FMD in studies of sedentary ageing persons. Studies were identified from systematic search of major electronic databases from inception to January 2018. Study quality was assessed before conducting a random effects meta-analysis to calculate a pooled ES (mean difference) with 95{\%} CI’s. Thirteen studies [10 cross-sectional (n=485); 4 intervention (n=125] with age ranges from 62-75 years underwent quantitative pooling of data. Older athletes had more favourable FMD compared with sedentary controls (2.1{\%}; CI:1.4{\%}, 2.8{\%}; P<0.001). There was no significant improvement in the vascular function of sedentary cohorts following a period of exercise training (0.7{\%}; CI: -0.675{\%}, 2.09{\%}; P=0.316). However, there was a significant increase in baseline diameter from pre to post intervention (0.098{\%}; CI: 0.066{\%}, 0.130{\%}; P<0.001). In addition, there was no significant difference in endothelial independent vasodilation between the trained and sedentary older adults (1.57{\%}; CI: -0.13{\%}, 3.27{\%}; P=0.07), or from pre to post exercise intervention (1.48{\%}; CI: -1.34{\%}, 4.3{\%}; P=0.3).In conclusion, long-term aerobic exercise appears to attenuate the decline in endothelial vascular function, a benefit which is maintained during chronological ageing. However, currently there is not enough evidence to suggest that exercise interventions improve vascular function in previously sedentary healthy older adults.",
keywords = "ageing, vascular health, flow mediated dilatation, exercise, systematic review, meta analysis",
author = "Amy Campbell and Fergal Grace and Louise Ritchie and Alexander Beaumont and Nick Sculthorpe",
year = "2019",
month = "2",
day = "26",
doi = "10.3389/fphys.2019.00031",
language = "English",
journal = "Frontiers in Physiology",
issn = "1664-042X",
publisher = "Frontiers Media",

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T1 - Long-term aerobic exercise improves vascular function in old age

T2 - a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta regression of observational and interventional studies

AU - Campbell, Amy

AU - Grace, Fergal

AU - Ritchie, Louise

AU - Beaumont, Alexander

AU - Sculthorpe, Nick

PY - 2019/2/26

Y1 - 2019/2/26

N2 - There is an emerging body of literature relating to the effectiveness of frequent aerobic exercise as a prophylactic for age-associated dysfunction of large arteries, yet systematic evaluation and precise estimate of this effect is unknown.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled studies examining flow mediated dilatation (FMD) of athletic older persons and otherwise healthy sedentary counterparts to (i) compare FMD as a determinant of endothelial function between athletes and sedentary (ii) summarise the effect of exercise training on FMD in studies of sedentary ageing persons. Studies were identified from systematic search of major electronic databases from inception to January 2018. Study quality was assessed before conducting a random effects meta-analysis to calculate a pooled ES (mean difference) with 95% CI’s. Thirteen studies [10 cross-sectional (n=485); 4 intervention (n=125] with age ranges from 62-75 years underwent quantitative pooling of data. Older athletes had more favourable FMD compared with sedentary controls (2.1%; CI:1.4%, 2.8%; P<0.001). There was no significant improvement in the vascular function of sedentary cohorts following a period of exercise training (0.7%; CI: -0.675%, 2.09%; P=0.316). However, there was a significant increase in baseline diameter from pre to post intervention (0.098%; CI: 0.066%, 0.130%; P<0.001). In addition, there was no significant difference in endothelial independent vasodilation between the trained and sedentary older adults (1.57%; CI: -0.13%, 3.27%; P=0.07), or from pre to post exercise intervention (1.48%; CI: -1.34%, 4.3%; P=0.3).In conclusion, long-term aerobic exercise appears to attenuate the decline in endothelial vascular function, a benefit which is maintained during chronological ageing. However, currently there is not enough evidence to suggest that exercise interventions improve vascular function in previously sedentary healthy older adults.

AB - There is an emerging body of literature relating to the effectiveness of frequent aerobic exercise as a prophylactic for age-associated dysfunction of large arteries, yet systematic evaluation and precise estimate of this effect is unknown.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled studies examining flow mediated dilatation (FMD) of athletic older persons and otherwise healthy sedentary counterparts to (i) compare FMD as a determinant of endothelial function between athletes and sedentary (ii) summarise the effect of exercise training on FMD in studies of sedentary ageing persons. Studies were identified from systematic search of major electronic databases from inception to January 2018. Study quality was assessed before conducting a random effects meta-analysis to calculate a pooled ES (mean difference) with 95% CI’s. Thirteen studies [10 cross-sectional (n=485); 4 intervention (n=125] with age ranges from 62-75 years underwent quantitative pooling of data. Older athletes had more favourable FMD compared with sedentary controls (2.1%; CI:1.4%, 2.8%; P<0.001). There was no significant improvement in the vascular function of sedentary cohorts following a period of exercise training (0.7%; CI: -0.675%, 2.09%; P=0.316). However, there was a significant increase in baseline diameter from pre to post intervention (0.098%; CI: 0.066%, 0.130%; P<0.001). In addition, there was no significant difference in endothelial independent vasodilation between the trained and sedentary older adults (1.57%; CI: -0.13%, 3.27%; P=0.07), or from pre to post exercise intervention (1.48%; CI: -1.34%, 4.3%; P=0.3).In conclusion, long-term aerobic exercise appears to attenuate the decline in endothelial vascular function, a benefit which is maintained during chronological ageing. However, currently there is not enough evidence to suggest that exercise interventions improve vascular function in previously sedentary healthy older adults.

KW - ageing

KW - vascular health

KW - flow mediated dilatation

KW - exercise

KW - systematic review

KW - meta analysis

U2 - 10.3389/fphys.2019.00031

DO - 10.3389/fphys.2019.00031

M3 - Article

JO - Frontiers in Physiology

JF - Frontiers in Physiology

SN - 1664-042X

ER -