Left Ventricular Speckle Tracking-Derived Cardiac Strain and Cardiac Twist Mechanics in Athlete: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Studies

Alexander Beaumont, Fergal Grace, Joanna Richards, John Hough, David Oxborough, Nicholas Sculthorpe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

PurposeThe objective of the present study was to investigate left ventricular (LV) twist mechanics in response to incremental cycling and isometric knee extension exercises.
MethodsTwenty-six healthy male participants (age = 30.42 ± 6.17 years) were used to study peak twist mechanics at rest and during incremental semi-supine cycling at 30 and 60% work rate maximum (Wmax) and during short duration (15 s contractions) isometric knee extension at 40 and 75% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography.
ResultsData presented as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range). LV twist increased from rest to 30% Wmax (13.21° ± 4.63° to 20.04° ± 4.76°, p < 0.001) then remained unchanged. LV systolic and diastolic twisting velocities progressively increased with exercise intensity during cycling from rest to 60% Wmax (twisting, 88.21° ± 20.51° to 209.05° ± 34.56° s−1, p < 0.0001; untwisting, −93.90 (29.62)° to −267.31 (104.30)° s−1, p < 0.0001). During the knee extension exercise, LV twist remained unchanged with progressive intensity (rest 13.40° ± 4.80° to 75% MVC 16.77° ± 5.54°, p > 0.05), whilst twisting velocity increased (rest 89.15° ± 21.77° s−1 to 75% MVC 124.32° ± 34.89° s−1, p < 0.01). Untwisting velocity remained unchanged from rest [−90.60 (27.19)° s−1] to 40% MVC (p > 0.05) then increased from 40 to 75% MVC [−98.44 (43.54)° s−1 to −138.42 (73.29)° s−1, p < 0.01]. Apical rotations and rotational velocities were greater than basal during all conditions and intensities (all p < 0.01).
ConclusionCycling increased LV twist to 30% Wmax which then remained unchanged thereafter, whereas twisting velocities showed further increases to greater intensities. A novel finding is that LV twist was unaffected by incremental knee extension, yet systolic and diastolic twisting velocities augmented with isometric exercise.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-26
JournalSports Medicine
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Dec 2016

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Mechanics
Athletes
Meta-Analysis
Knee
Exercise
Isometric Contraction
Echocardiography
Healthy Volunteers

Cite this

@article{4aec6def9f2a4892ba1a5bb436e452d6,
title = "Left Ventricular Speckle Tracking-Derived Cardiac Strain and Cardiac Twist Mechanics in Athlete: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Studies",
abstract = "PurposeThe objective of the present study was to investigate left ventricular (LV) twist mechanics in response to incremental cycling and isometric knee extension exercises.MethodsTwenty-six healthy male participants (age = 30.42 ± 6.17 years) were used to study peak twist mechanics at rest and during incremental semi-supine cycling at 30 and 60{\%} work rate maximum (Wmax) and during short duration (15 s contractions) isometric knee extension at 40 and 75{\%} maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography.ResultsData presented as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range). LV twist increased from rest to 30{\%} Wmax (13.21° ± 4.63° to 20.04° ± 4.76°, p < 0.001) then remained unchanged. LV systolic and diastolic twisting velocities progressively increased with exercise intensity during cycling from rest to 60{\%} Wmax (twisting, 88.21° ± 20.51° to 209.05° ± 34.56° s−1, p < 0.0001; untwisting, −93.90 (29.62)° to −267.31 (104.30)° s−1, p < 0.0001). During the knee extension exercise, LV twist remained unchanged with progressive intensity (rest 13.40° ± 4.80° to 75{\%} MVC 16.77° ± 5.54°, p > 0.05), whilst twisting velocity increased (rest 89.15° ± 21.77° s−1 to 75{\%} MVC 124.32° ± 34.89° s−1, p < 0.01). Untwisting velocity remained unchanged from rest [−90.60 (27.19)° s−1] to 40{\%} MVC (p > 0.05) then increased from 40 to 75{\%} MVC [−98.44 (43.54)° s−1 to −138.42 (73.29)° s−1, p < 0.01]. Apical rotations and rotational velocities were greater than basal during all conditions and intensities (all p < 0.01).ConclusionCycling increased LV twist to 30{\%} Wmax which then remained unchanged thereafter, whereas twisting velocities showed further increases to greater intensities. A novel finding is that LV twist was unaffected by incremental knee extension, yet systolic and diastolic twisting velocities augmented with isometric exercise.",
author = "Alexander Beaumont and Fergal Grace and Joanna Richards and John Hough and David Oxborough and Nicholas Sculthorpe",
year = "2016",
month = "12",
day = "6",
doi = "10.1007/s40279-016-0644-4",
language = "English",
pages = "1--26",
journal = "Sports Medicine",
issn = "0112-1642",
publisher = "Springer",

}

Left Ventricular Speckle Tracking-Derived Cardiac Strain and Cardiac Twist Mechanics in Athlete : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Studies. / Beaumont, Alexander; Grace, Fergal; Richards, Joanna; Hough, John; Oxborough, David; Sculthorpe, Nicholas.

In: Sports Medicine, 06.12.2016, p. 1-26.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Left Ventricular Speckle Tracking-Derived Cardiac Strain and Cardiac Twist Mechanics in Athlete

T2 - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Studies

AU - Beaumont, Alexander

AU - Grace, Fergal

AU - Richards, Joanna

AU - Hough, John

AU - Oxborough, David

AU - Sculthorpe, Nicholas

PY - 2016/12/6

Y1 - 2016/12/6

N2 - PurposeThe objective of the present study was to investigate left ventricular (LV) twist mechanics in response to incremental cycling and isometric knee extension exercises.MethodsTwenty-six healthy male participants (age = 30.42 ± 6.17 years) were used to study peak twist mechanics at rest and during incremental semi-supine cycling at 30 and 60% work rate maximum (Wmax) and during short duration (15 s contractions) isometric knee extension at 40 and 75% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography.ResultsData presented as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range). LV twist increased from rest to 30% Wmax (13.21° ± 4.63° to 20.04° ± 4.76°, p < 0.001) then remained unchanged. LV systolic and diastolic twisting velocities progressively increased with exercise intensity during cycling from rest to 60% Wmax (twisting, 88.21° ± 20.51° to 209.05° ± 34.56° s−1, p < 0.0001; untwisting, −93.90 (29.62)° to −267.31 (104.30)° s−1, p < 0.0001). During the knee extension exercise, LV twist remained unchanged with progressive intensity (rest 13.40° ± 4.80° to 75% MVC 16.77° ± 5.54°, p > 0.05), whilst twisting velocity increased (rest 89.15° ± 21.77° s−1 to 75% MVC 124.32° ± 34.89° s−1, p < 0.01). Untwisting velocity remained unchanged from rest [−90.60 (27.19)° s−1] to 40% MVC (p > 0.05) then increased from 40 to 75% MVC [−98.44 (43.54)° s−1 to −138.42 (73.29)° s−1, p < 0.01]. Apical rotations and rotational velocities were greater than basal during all conditions and intensities (all p < 0.01).ConclusionCycling increased LV twist to 30% Wmax which then remained unchanged thereafter, whereas twisting velocities showed further increases to greater intensities. A novel finding is that LV twist was unaffected by incremental knee extension, yet systolic and diastolic twisting velocities augmented with isometric exercise.

AB - PurposeThe objective of the present study was to investigate left ventricular (LV) twist mechanics in response to incremental cycling and isometric knee extension exercises.MethodsTwenty-six healthy male participants (age = 30.42 ± 6.17 years) were used to study peak twist mechanics at rest and during incremental semi-supine cycling at 30 and 60% work rate maximum (Wmax) and during short duration (15 s contractions) isometric knee extension at 40 and 75% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography.ResultsData presented as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range). LV twist increased from rest to 30% Wmax (13.21° ± 4.63° to 20.04° ± 4.76°, p < 0.001) then remained unchanged. LV systolic and diastolic twisting velocities progressively increased with exercise intensity during cycling from rest to 60% Wmax (twisting, 88.21° ± 20.51° to 209.05° ± 34.56° s−1, p < 0.0001; untwisting, −93.90 (29.62)° to −267.31 (104.30)° s−1, p < 0.0001). During the knee extension exercise, LV twist remained unchanged with progressive intensity (rest 13.40° ± 4.80° to 75% MVC 16.77° ± 5.54°, p > 0.05), whilst twisting velocity increased (rest 89.15° ± 21.77° s−1 to 75% MVC 124.32° ± 34.89° s−1, p < 0.01). Untwisting velocity remained unchanged from rest [−90.60 (27.19)° s−1] to 40% MVC (p > 0.05) then increased from 40 to 75% MVC [−98.44 (43.54)° s−1 to −138.42 (73.29)° s−1, p < 0.01]. Apical rotations and rotational velocities were greater than basal during all conditions and intensities (all p < 0.01).ConclusionCycling increased LV twist to 30% Wmax which then remained unchanged thereafter, whereas twisting velocities showed further increases to greater intensities. A novel finding is that LV twist was unaffected by incremental knee extension, yet systolic and diastolic twisting velocities augmented with isometric exercise.

U2 - 10.1007/s40279-016-0644-4

DO - 10.1007/s40279-016-0644-4

M3 - Article

SP - 1

EP - 26

JO - Sports Medicine

JF - Sports Medicine

SN - 0112-1642

ER -