Investigation of the antimicrobial properties of modified multilayer diamond-like carbon coatings on 316 stainless steel surface and coatings technology

Shaun Robertson, Desmond Gibson, William MacKay, Stuart Reid, Craig Williams, Ross Birney

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Abstract

Modified diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were deposited onto 25 mm diameter 316 stainless steel discs by pulsed (direct current) hollow cathode plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (HCPECVD). Multilayer films of total thickness 1 – 2 μm were deposited, both with and without germanium dopant. Characterisation of the coatings was performed by SEM/EDX, surface energy/contact angle analysis, and assessment of possible biofilm-inhibiting properties. Both modified DLC and germanium-doped DLC (Ge-DLC) coatings showed a significant anti-biofouling effect on P. aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium. A 90% reduction in P. aeruginosa biomass was observed compared to control for both DLC and Ge-DLC, however this effect could not be attributed to germanium incorporation alone. Neither modified DLC nor Ge-DLC showed a significant inhibitory effect on S. aureus, a Gram-positive bacterium. Scanning electron microscopy of P. aeruginosa biofilms on Ge-DLC coated 316 stainless steel clearly displayed disruption of the cellular wall, as well as leakage of cellular components; this effect was not observed with modified DLC coating. This suggests that germanium-doped DLC coatings may potentially exhibit a cidal mode of action versus P. aeruginosa biofilms.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)72-78
JournalSurface & Coatings Technology
Volume314
Early online date11 Nov 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Mar 2017

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Diamond
Germanium
Stainless Steel
stainless steels
Diamonds
Multilayers
Carbon
Stainless steel
diamonds
germanium
coatings
Coatings
carbon
biofilms
Biofilms
bacteria
Bacteria
Biofouling
Scanning electron microscopy
scanning electron microscopy

Cite this

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title = "Investigation of the antimicrobial properties of modified multilayer diamond-like carbon coatings on 316 stainless steel surface and coatings technology",
abstract = "Modified diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were deposited onto 25 mm diameter 316 stainless steel discs by pulsed (direct current) hollow cathode plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (HCPECVD). Multilayer films of total thickness 1 – 2 μm were deposited, both with and without germanium dopant. Characterisation of the coatings was performed by SEM/EDX, surface energy/contact angle analysis, and assessment of possible biofilm-inhibiting properties. Both modified DLC and germanium-doped DLC (Ge-DLC) coatings showed a significant anti-biofouling effect on P. aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium. A 90{\%} reduction in P. aeruginosa biomass was observed compared to control for both DLC and Ge-DLC, however this effect could not be attributed to germanium incorporation alone. Neither modified DLC nor Ge-DLC showed a significant inhibitory effect on S. aureus, a Gram-positive bacterium. Scanning electron microscopy of P. aeruginosa biofilms on Ge-DLC coated 316 stainless steel clearly displayed disruption of the cellular wall, as well as leakage of cellular components; this effect was not observed with modified DLC coating. This suggests that germanium-doped DLC coatings may potentially exhibit a cidal mode of action versus P. aeruginosa biofilms.",
author = "Shaun Robertson and Desmond Gibson and William MacKay and Stuart Reid and Craig Williams and Ross Birney",
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T1 - Investigation of the antimicrobial properties of modified multilayer diamond-like carbon coatings on 316 stainless steel surface and coatings technology

AU - Robertson, Shaun

AU - Gibson, Desmond

AU - MacKay, William

AU - Reid, Stuart

AU - Williams, Craig

AU - Birney, Ross

PY - 2017/3/25

Y1 - 2017/3/25

N2 - Modified diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were deposited onto 25 mm diameter 316 stainless steel discs by pulsed (direct current) hollow cathode plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (HCPECVD). Multilayer films of total thickness 1 – 2 μm were deposited, both with and without germanium dopant. Characterisation of the coatings was performed by SEM/EDX, surface energy/contact angle analysis, and assessment of possible biofilm-inhibiting properties. Both modified DLC and germanium-doped DLC (Ge-DLC) coatings showed a significant anti-biofouling effect on P. aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium. A 90% reduction in P. aeruginosa biomass was observed compared to control for both DLC and Ge-DLC, however this effect could not be attributed to germanium incorporation alone. Neither modified DLC nor Ge-DLC showed a significant inhibitory effect on S. aureus, a Gram-positive bacterium. Scanning electron microscopy of P. aeruginosa biofilms on Ge-DLC coated 316 stainless steel clearly displayed disruption of the cellular wall, as well as leakage of cellular components; this effect was not observed with modified DLC coating. This suggests that germanium-doped DLC coatings may potentially exhibit a cidal mode of action versus P. aeruginosa biofilms.

AB - Modified diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were deposited onto 25 mm diameter 316 stainless steel discs by pulsed (direct current) hollow cathode plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (HCPECVD). Multilayer films of total thickness 1 – 2 μm were deposited, both with and without germanium dopant. Characterisation of the coatings was performed by SEM/EDX, surface energy/contact angle analysis, and assessment of possible biofilm-inhibiting properties. Both modified DLC and germanium-doped DLC (Ge-DLC) coatings showed a significant anti-biofouling effect on P. aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium. A 90% reduction in P. aeruginosa biomass was observed compared to control for both DLC and Ge-DLC, however this effect could not be attributed to germanium incorporation alone. Neither modified DLC nor Ge-DLC showed a significant inhibitory effect on S. aureus, a Gram-positive bacterium. Scanning electron microscopy of P. aeruginosa biofilms on Ge-DLC coated 316 stainless steel clearly displayed disruption of the cellular wall, as well as leakage of cellular components; this effect was not observed with modified DLC coating. This suggests that germanium-doped DLC coatings may potentially exhibit a cidal mode of action versus P. aeruginosa biofilms.

U2 - 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.11.035

DO - 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2016.11.035

M3 - Article

VL - 314

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EP - 78

JO - Surface & Coatings Technology

JF - Surface & Coatings Technology

SN - 0257-8972

ER -