Different rotation speeds of the substrate about its surface normal were used to produce sculptured copper thin films of ∼ 90 nm thickness. X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to obtain nano-structure and morphology of these films. Their optical properties were measured by spectrophotometry in the spectral range of 340–850 nm. Real and imaginary refractive indices, film thickness and fraction of metal inclusion in the film structure were obtained from optical fitting of the spectrophotometer data.
- Sculptured thin films
- Bruggeman effective medium approximation
- Substrate rotation speed