Individual and cultural factors in teachers' attitudes towards inclusion: a meta-analysis

Tommy van Steen*, Claire Wilson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)
13 Downloads (Pure)


The success of inclusive education is dependent upon classroom teachers implementing adaptations for children with disabilities. Given that willingness to make such adaptations is influenced by teacher attitudes, the current study examined teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education through a meta-analysis of 64 samples that were found via a systematic literature search. The results indicated that teachers hold a positive attitude towards inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream schools and that these attitudes are moderated by an interplay of cultural and demographical factors. The findings offer a renewed basis for intervention research into improving educational opportunities for children around the world.
Original languageEnglish
Article number103127
Number of pages13
JournalTeaching and Teacher Education
Early online date24 Jun 2020
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2020


  • inclusive education
  • teacher attitudes
  • meta-analysis
  • cultural factors
  • demographics


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