Illegal diversification strategies in farming contexts are neglected in research terms. There are endogenous and exogenous factors that influence the potential strategic ca-pability and activity of illegal entrepreneurs and criminal farmers. Internal factors in-clude the personal characteristics of the farmer–qualities and skills. External factors, outside the control of the individual illegal entrepreneur, include the activities and pro-cesses undertaken by them, the characteristics of the illegal enterprise, government pol-icies, markets and environmental factors. Using a documentary research methodology of 210 case studies, located on the internet, from across the UK (where farmers had been charged with criminal offences relating to their occupation) The article contributes to the literature on farm diversification and rural crime.