Homocysteine induced cardiovascular events

a consequence of long term anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse

M.R. Graham, F.M. Grace, W. Boobier, D. Hullin, A. Kicman, D. Cowan, B. Davies, J.S. Baker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives

The long term effects (>20 years) of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use on plasma concentrations of homocysteine (HCY), folate, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index, urea, creatinine, haematocrit (HCT), vitamin B12, and urinary testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, were examined in a cohort of self-prescribing bodybuilders.

Methods

Subjects (n = 40) were divided into four distinct groups: (1) AAS users still using AAS (SU; n = 10); (2) AAS users abstinent from AAS administration for 3 months (SA; n = 10); (3) non-drug using bodybuilding controls (BC; n = 10); and (4) sedentary male controls (SC; n = 10).

Results

HCY levels were significantly higher in SU compared with BC and SC (p<0.01), and with SA (p<0.05). Fat free mass was significantly higher in both groups of AAS users (p<0.01). Daily energy intake (kJ) and daily protein intake (g/day) were significantly higher in SU and SA (p<0.05) compared with BC and SC, but were unlikely to be responsible for the observed HCY increases. HCT concentrations were significantly higher in the SU group (p<0.01). A significant linear inverse relationship was observed in the SU group between SHBG and HCY (r = −0.828, p<0.01), indicating a possible influence of the sex hormones in determining HCY levels.

Conclusions

With mounting evidence linking AAS to adverse effects on some clotting factors, the significantly higher levels of HCY and HCT observed in the SU group suggest long term AAS users have increased risk of future thromboembolic events.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)644-648
Number of pages5
JournalBritish Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume40
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Testosterone Congeners
Homocysteine
Hematocrit
Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin
Testosterone
Epitestosterone
Blood Coagulation Factors
Gonadal Steroid Hormones
Vitamin B 12
Energy Intake
Folic Acid
Androgens
Urea
Creatinine
Fats

Cite this

Graham, M.R. ; Grace, F.M. ; Boobier, W. ; Hullin, D. ; Kicman, A. ; Cowan, D. ; Davies, B. ; Baker, J.S. / Homocysteine induced cardiovascular events : a consequence of long term anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse. In: British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2006 ; Vol. 40, No. 7. pp. 644-648.
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title = "Homocysteine induced cardiovascular events: a consequence of long term anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse",
abstract = "ObjectivesThe long term effects (>20 years) of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use on plasma concentrations of homocysteine (HCY), folate, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index, urea, creatinine, haematocrit (HCT), vitamin B12, and urinary testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, were examined in a cohort of self-prescribing bodybuilders.MethodsSubjects (n = 40) were divided into four distinct groups: (1) AAS users still using AAS (SU; n = 10); (2) AAS users abstinent from AAS administration for 3 months (SA; n = 10); (3) non-drug using bodybuilding controls (BC; n = 10); and (4) sedentary male controls (SC; n = 10).ResultsHCY levels were significantly higher in SU compared with BC and SC (p<0.01), and with SA (p<0.05). Fat free mass was significantly higher in both groups of AAS users (p<0.01). Daily energy intake (kJ) and daily protein intake (g/day) were significantly higher in SU and SA (p<0.05) compared with BC and SC, but were unlikely to be responsible for the observed HCY increases. HCT concentrations were significantly higher in the SU group (p<0.01). A significant linear inverse relationship was observed in the SU group between SHBG and HCY (r = −0.828, p<0.01), indicating a possible influence of the sex hormones in determining HCY levels.ConclusionsWith mounting evidence linking AAS to adverse effects on some clotting factors, the significantly higher levels of HCY and HCT observed in the SU group suggest long term AAS users have increased risk of future thromboembolic events.",
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Graham, MR, Grace, FM, Boobier, W, Hullin, D, Kicman, A, Cowan, D, Davies, B & Baker, JS 2006, 'Homocysteine induced cardiovascular events: a consequence of long term anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse', British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 644-648. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2005.025668

Homocysteine induced cardiovascular events : a consequence of long term anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse. / Graham, M.R.; Grace, F.M.; Boobier, W.; Hullin, D.; Kicman, A.; Cowan, D.; Davies, B.; Baker, J.S.

In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 40, No. 7, 01.07.2006, p. 644-648.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Homocysteine induced cardiovascular events

T2 - a consequence of long term anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse

AU - Graham, M.R.

AU - Grace, F.M.

AU - Boobier, W.

AU - Hullin, D.

AU - Kicman, A.

AU - Cowan, D.

AU - Davies, B.

AU - Baker, J.S.

PY - 2006/7/1

Y1 - 2006/7/1

N2 - ObjectivesThe long term effects (>20 years) of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use on plasma concentrations of homocysteine (HCY), folate, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index, urea, creatinine, haematocrit (HCT), vitamin B12, and urinary testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, were examined in a cohort of self-prescribing bodybuilders.MethodsSubjects (n = 40) were divided into four distinct groups: (1) AAS users still using AAS (SU; n = 10); (2) AAS users abstinent from AAS administration for 3 months (SA; n = 10); (3) non-drug using bodybuilding controls (BC; n = 10); and (4) sedentary male controls (SC; n = 10).ResultsHCY levels were significantly higher in SU compared with BC and SC (p<0.01), and with SA (p<0.05). Fat free mass was significantly higher in both groups of AAS users (p<0.01). Daily energy intake (kJ) and daily protein intake (g/day) were significantly higher in SU and SA (p<0.05) compared with BC and SC, but were unlikely to be responsible for the observed HCY increases. HCT concentrations were significantly higher in the SU group (p<0.01). A significant linear inverse relationship was observed in the SU group between SHBG and HCY (r = −0.828, p<0.01), indicating a possible influence of the sex hormones in determining HCY levels.ConclusionsWith mounting evidence linking AAS to adverse effects on some clotting factors, the significantly higher levels of HCY and HCT observed in the SU group suggest long term AAS users have increased risk of future thromboembolic events.

AB - ObjectivesThe long term effects (>20 years) of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use on plasma concentrations of homocysteine (HCY), folate, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index, urea, creatinine, haematocrit (HCT), vitamin B12, and urinary testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, were examined in a cohort of self-prescribing bodybuilders.MethodsSubjects (n = 40) were divided into four distinct groups: (1) AAS users still using AAS (SU; n = 10); (2) AAS users abstinent from AAS administration for 3 months (SA; n = 10); (3) non-drug using bodybuilding controls (BC; n = 10); and (4) sedentary male controls (SC; n = 10).ResultsHCY levels were significantly higher in SU compared with BC and SC (p<0.01), and with SA (p<0.05). Fat free mass was significantly higher in both groups of AAS users (p<0.01). Daily energy intake (kJ) and daily protein intake (g/day) were significantly higher in SU and SA (p<0.05) compared with BC and SC, but were unlikely to be responsible for the observed HCY increases. HCT concentrations were significantly higher in the SU group (p<0.01). A significant linear inverse relationship was observed in the SU group between SHBG and HCY (r = −0.828, p<0.01), indicating a possible influence of the sex hormones in determining HCY levels.ConclusionsWith mounting evidence linking AAS to adverse effects on some clotting factors, the significantly higher levels of HCY and HCT observed in the SU group suggest long term AAS users have increased risk of future thromboembolic events.

U2 - 10.1136/bjsm.2005.025668

DO - 10.1136/bjsm.2005.025668

M3 - Article

VL - 40

SP - 644

EP - 648

JO - British Journal of Sports Medicine

JF - British Journal of Sports Medicine

SN - 0306-3674

IS - 7

ER -