In this work, we have developed a contact-printing system to efficiently transfer the bottom-up and top-down semiconductor nanowires (NWs), preserving their as-grown features with a good control over their electronic properties. In the close-loop configuration, the printing system is controlled with parameters such as contact pressure and sliding speed/stroke. Combined with the dry pre-treatment of the receiver substrate, the system prints electronic layers with high NW density (7 NWs/μm for bottom-up ZnO and 3 NWs/μm for top-down Si NWs), NW transfer yield and reproducibility. We observed compactly packed (~115 nm average diameters of NWs, with NW-to-NW spacing ~165 nm) and well-aligned NWs (90% with respect to the printing direction). We have theoretically and experimentally analysed the role of contact force on NW print dynamics to investigate the heterogeneous integration of ZnO and Si NWs over pre-selected areas. Moreover, the contact-printing system was used to fabricate ZnO and Si NW-based ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs) with Wheatstone bridge (WB) configuration on rigid and flexible substrates. The UV PDs based on the printed ensemble of NWs demonstrate high efficiency, a high photocurrent to dark current ratio (>104) and reduced thermal variations as a result of inherent self-compensation of WB arrangement. Due to statistically lesser dimensional variations in the ensemble of NWs, the UV PDs made from them have exhibited uniform response.
- flexible electronics
- UV photodetectors