GMM-LSTM: a component driven resource utilization prediction model leveraging LSTM and gaussian mixture model

Sheetal Garg*, Rohit Ahuja, Raman Singh, Ivan Perl

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Nowadays, Cloud services are gaining importance among users due to their cost-effectiveness and highly scalable resources. To meet the user’s demands, several data centres are built across the globe, which has severe environmental as well as economical concerns. Energy consumption is one of the most significant issue faced by cloud service providers. Prediction of accurate resource usage of the physical machine helps in effective utilization of resources in a data centre, resulting in minimizing an active number of physical machines, which helps to minimize the energy consumption of a data centre. Although several models till date focus on virtual machine consolidation with a notion of reducing energy consumption, the reduction of operational physical machines has not gathered enough attention. In this paper, we propose a prediction model to predict resource utilization of physical machines, which enables to effectively utilize the entire data centre’s resources to reduce energy consumption. First, the raw time series workload is processed to enhance the value of its features for better training and prediction of mean resource utilization in the cloud data centre using the proposed Sum Average (SA) algorithm. Afterward, Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is employed to cluster heterogeneous machines of data centre based on its resource usage which helps to analyze the prediction for each kind of configured machine available in a data centre. In addition, the Long Short Term Memory model (LSTM) is employed to predict the mean resource usage of physical machines for every clustered machine. Furthermore, the effectiveness of our proposed model is evaluated using the Google cluster trace usage dataset. Lastly, the proposed model is compared with Linear Regression, Moving Average, and Auto Regression Integrated Moving Average model. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) analysis states that our proposed model outperforms the other compared techniques.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages17
JournalCluster Computing
Early online date22 Sept 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 22 Sept 2022


  • Gaussian mixture model
  • long short term memory
  • resource prediction
  • cloud computing


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