Gender imbalance in academic careers

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingEntry for encyclopedia/dictionarypeer-review

25 Downloads (Pure)


Gender inequality is defined by the underrepresentation of women in sectors and professions in employment, a poorer record of advancement to higher levels of organizations than men and the historical relationship between the genders in society. Until the early twentieth century, the domination of men in governmental roles was mostly unchallenged. Gender inequality in the workplace can be defined as the lack of opportunity which females encounter in employment and includes “access to work”: advancement in careers and the women’s role in a male-dominated business world. This is further delineated by concepts of “horizontal” and “vertical” segregation. Horizontal segregation deals with the underrepresentation of women across roles, for example, the lack of females in science, technology, electronics and maths (STEM) areas of both study and work. Vertical segregation deals with the lack of female progression to the higher echelons of organizations, sometimes known as the “glass ceiling.”
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals
Subtitle of host publicationGender Equality
Editors Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökcin Özuyar, Tony Wall
PublisherSpringer Nature Switzerland AG
ISBN (Electronic)9783319700601
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 4 Dec 2019

Publication series

NameEncyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals.
ISSN (Print)2523-7403
ISSN (Electronic)2523-7411


  • Gender
  • Glass ceiling
  • Academic careers


Dive into the research topics of 'Gender imbalance in academic careers'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this