Exercise, science and designer doping: traditional and emerging trends

M.R. Graham, B. Davies, Fergal Grace, Julien Baker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The list of doping agents is enormous, and for the majority, any beneficial sporting effect is contentious. WADA and UK Anti-Doping have difficulty detecting the peptide hormones, Growth Hormone (GH), insulin and Erythropoietin (Epo), because they require blood analysis. Only in the last two years has an athlete been convicted of taking GH, which is still being used as a doping agent because the window for detection is so brief. This positive test was not contested, which suggests that science may be winning the war on drugs. Athletes appear to have ceased taking insulin, because of its life-threatening acute effects, and in recent years no adverse analytical findings have been reported for this drug.

“Older” doping agents, which are known to enhance performance in sport, include testosterone and their derivatives, anabolic steroids.

The pharmaceutical industry continues to manufacture new medicines, pushing back the boundaries in combating wasting disease states and the ageing process, but is inadvertently producing the latest generation of doping agents. This will challenge anti-doping scientists.

WADA’s banned list also includes insulin-like growth factor-1, fibroblast growth factors, hepatocyte growth factor, mechano growth factors, platelet-derived growth factor, vascular-endothelial growth factor which may promote muscle, tendon or ligament development, vascularisation, energy utilisation, regenerative capacity and fibre type. Athletes will use whatever they believe works, but can only use what is available. Internet companies offer these anabolic products that but their veracity cannot be proven.

There are questions that need to be answered? Are these products available to athletes, do they enhance performance, are athletes really taking them and are they so difficult to detect. The internet has made them available to anyone with a credit card and it appears that if they are cycled correctly, unless an athlete is caught in possession of them, the opportunity of proving a case of doping is almost impossible.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1000113
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
Volume2
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Fingerprint

Athletes
Exercise
Internet
Growth Hormone
Testosterone Congeners
Insulin
Wasting Syndrome
Fibroblast Growth Factor 1
Athletic Performance
Hepatocyte Growth Factor
Peptide Hormones
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
Drug Industry
Somatomedins
Erythropoietin
Ligaments
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Tendons
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Testosterone

Cite this

@article{1f43434b3576460d9e3df4134482c343,
title = "Exercise, science and designer doping: traditional and emerging trends",
abstract = "The list of doping agents is enormous, and for the majority, any beneficial sporting effect is contentious. WADA and UK Anti-Doping have difficulty detecting the peptide hormones, Growth Hormone (GH), insulin and Erythropoietin (Epo), because they require blood analysis. Only in the last two years has an athlete been convicted of taking GH, which is still being used as a doping agent because the window for detection is so brief. This positive test was not contested, which suggests that science may be winning the war on drugs. Athletes appear to have ceased taking insulin, because of its life-threatening acute effects, and in recent years no adverse analytical findings have been reported for this drug.“Older” doping agents, which are known to enhance performance in sport, include testosterone and their derivatives, anabolic steroids. The pharmaceutical industry continues to manufacture new medicines, pushing back the boundaries in combating wasting disease states and the ageing process, but is inadvertently producing the latest generation of doping agents. This will challenge anti-doping scientists. WADA’s banned list also includes insulin-like growth factor-1, fibroblast growth factors, hepatocyte growth factor, mechano growth factors, platelet-derived growth factor, vascular-endothelial growth factor which may promote muscle, tendon or ligament development, vascularisation, energy utilisation, regenerative capacity and fibre type. Athletes will use whatever they believe works, but can only use what is available. Internet companies offer these anabolic products that but their veracity cannot be proven. There are questions that need to be answered? Are these products available to athletes, do they enhance performance, are athletes really taking them and are they so difficult to detect. The internet has made them available to anyone with a credit card and it appears that if they are cycled correctly, unless an athlete is caught in possession of them, the opportunity of proving a case of doping is almost impossible.",
author = "M.R. Graham and B. Davies and Fergal Grace and Julien Baker",
year = "2012",
doi = "10.4172/2161-0673.1000113",
language = "English",
volume = "2",
journal = "Journal of Sports Medicine & Doping Studies",
issn = "2161-0673",
publisher = "OMICS International",
number = "3",

}

Exercise, science and designer doping : traditional and emerging trends. / Graham, M.R.; Davies, B.; Grace, Fergal; Baker, Julien.

In: Journal of Sports Medicine & Doping Studies, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1000113, 2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Exercise, science and designer doping

T2 - traditional and emerging trends

AU - Graham, M.R.

AU - Davies, B.

AU - Grace, Fergal

AU - Baker, Julien

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - The list of doping agents is enormous, and for the majority, any beneficial sporting effect is contentious. WADA and UK Anti-Doping have difficulty detecting the peptide hormones, Growth Hormone (GH), insulin and Erythropoietin (Epo), because they require blood analysis. Only in the last two years has an athlete been convicted of taking GH, which is still being used as a doping agent because the window for detection is so brief. This positive test was not contested, which suggests that science may be winning the war on drugs. Athletes appear to have ceased taking insulin, because of its life-threatening acute effects, and in recent years no adverse analytical findings have been reported for this drug.“Older” doping agents, which are known to enhance performance in sport, include testosterone and their derivatives, anabolic steroids. The pharmaceutical industry continues to manufacture new medicines, pushing back the boundaries in combating wasting disease states and the ageing process, but is inadvertently producing the latest generation of doping agents. This will challenge anti-doping scientists. WADA’s banned list also includes insulin-like growth factor-1, fibroblast growth factors, hepatocyte growth factor, mechano growth factors, platelet-derived growth factor, vascular-endothelial growth factor which may promote muscle, tendon or ligament development, vascularisation, energy utilisation, regenerative capacity and fibre type. Athletes will use whatever they believe works, but can only use what is available. Internet companies offer these anabolic products that but their veracity cannot be proven. There are questions that need to be answered? Are these products available to athletes, do they enhance performance, are athletes really taking them and are they so difficult to detect. The internet has made them available to anyone with a credit card and it appears that if they are cycled correctly, unless an athlete is caught in possession of them, the opportunity of proving a case of doping is almost impossible.

AB - The list of doping agents is enormous, and for the majority, any beneficial sporting effect is contentious. WADA and UK Anti-Doping have difficulty detecting the peptide hormones, Growth Hormone (GH), insulin and Erythropoietin (Epo), because they require blood analysis. Only in the last two years has an athlete been convicted of taking GH, which is still being used as a doping agent because the window for detection is so brief. This positive test was not contested, which suggests that science may be winning the war on drugs. Athletes appear to have ceased taking insulin, because of its life-threatening acute effects, and in recent years no adverse analytical findings have been reported for this drug.“Older” doping agents, which are known to enhance performance in sport, include testosterone and their derivatives, anabolic steroids. The pharmaceutical industry continues to manufacture new medicines, pushing back the boundaries in combating wasting disease states and the ageing process, but is inadvertently producing the latest generation of doping agents. This will challenge anti-doping scientists. WADA’s banned list also includes insulin-like growth factor-1, fibroblast growth factors, hepatocyte growth factor, mechano growth factors, platelet-derived growth factor, vascular-endothelial growth factor which may promote muscle, tendon or ligament development, vascularisation, energy utilisation, regenerative capacity and fibre type. Athletes will use whatever they believe works, but can only use what is available. Internet companies offer these anabolic products that but their veracity cannot be proven. There are questions that need to be answered? Are these products available to athletes, do they enhance performance, are athletes really taking them and are they so difficult to detect. The internet has made them available to anyone with a credit card and it appears that if they are cycled correctly, unless an athlete is caught in possession of them, the opportunity of proving a case of doping is almost impossible.

U2 - 10.4172/2161-0673.1000113

DO - 10.4172/2161-0673.1000113

M3 - Article

VL - 2

JO - Journal of Sports Medicine & Doping Studies

JF - Journal of Sports Medicine & Doping Studies

SN - 2161-0673

IS - 3

M1 - 1000113

ER -