Engagement in a National Naloxone Programme among people who inject drugs

Andrew McAulay, Alison Munro, Sheila Bird, Sharon Hutchinson, David Goldberg, Avril Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background

Availability of the opioid antagonist naloxone for lay administration has grown substantially since first proposed in 1996. Gaps remain, though, in our understanding of how people who inject drugs (PWID) engage with naloxone programmes over time.

Aims

This paper aimed to address three specific evidence gaps: the extent of naloxone supply to PWID; supply-source (community or prisons); and the carriage of naloxone among PWID.

Materials and methods

Analysis of Scotland’s Needle Exchange Surveillance Initiative (NESI) responses in 2011–2012 and 2013–2014 was undertaken with a specific focus on the extent of Scotland’s naloxone supply to PWID; including by source (community or prisons); and on the carriage of naloxone. Differences in responses between the two surveys were measured using Chi-square tests together with 95% confidence intervals for rate-differences over time.

Results

The proportion of NESI participants who reported that they had been prescribed naloxone within the last year increased significantly from 8% (175/2146; 95% CI: 7–9%) in 2011–2012 to 32% (745/2331; 95% CI: 30% to 34%) in 2013–2014. In contrast, the proportion of NESI participants who carried naloxone with them on the day they were interviewed decreased significantly from 16% (27/169; 95% CI: 10% to 22%) in 2011–2012 to 5% (39/741; 95% CI: 4% to 7%) in 2013–2014.

Conclusions

The supply of naloxone to PWID has increased significantly since the introduction of a National Naloxone Programme in Scotland in January 2011. In contrast, naloxone carriage is low and decreased between the two NESI surveys; this area requires further investigation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)236-240
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume162
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2016

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Naloxone
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Needles
Scotland
Prisons
Narcotic Antagonists
Chi-Square Distribution
Confidence Intervals

Cite this

McAulay, A., Munro, A., Bird, S., Hutchinson, S., Goldberg, D., & Taylor, A. (2016). Engagement in a National Naloxone Programme among people who inject drugs. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 162, 236-240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.02.031
McAulay, Andrew ; Munro, Alison ; Bird, Sheila ; Hutchinson, Sharon ; Goldberg, David ; Taylor, Avril. / Engagement in a National Naloxone Programme among people who inject drugs. In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2016 ; Vol. 162. pp. 236-240.
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title = "Engagement in a National Naloxone Programme among people who inject drugs",
abstract = "BackgroundAvailability of the opioid antagonist naloxone for lay administration has grown substantially since first proposed in 1996. Gaps remain, though, in our understanding of how people who inject drugs (PWID) engage with naloxone programmes over time.AimsThis paper aimed to address three specific evidence gaps: the extent of naloxone supply to PWID; supply-source (community or prisons); and the carriage of naloxone among PWID.Materials and methodsAnalysis of Scotland’s Needle Exchange Surveillance Initiative (NESI) responses in 2011–2012 and 2013–2014 was undertaken with a specific focus on the extent of Scotland’s naloxone supply to PWID; including by source (community or prisons); and on the carriage of naloxone. Differences in responses between the two surveys were measured using Chi-square tests together with 95{\%} confidence intervals for rate-differences over time.ResultsThe proportion of NESI participants who reported that they had been prescribed naloxone within the last year increased significantly from 8{\%} (175/2146; 95{\%} CI: 7–9{\%}) in 2011–2012 to 32{\%} (745/2331; 95{\%} CI: 30{\%} to 34{\%}) in 2013–2014. In contrast, the proportion of NESI participants who carried naloxone with them on the day they were interviewed decreased significantly from 16{\%} (27/169; 95{\%} CI: 10{\%} to 22{\%}) in 2011–2012 to 5{\%} (39/741; 95{\%} CI: 4{\%} to 7{\%}) in 2013–2014.ConclusionsThe supply of naloxone to PWID has increased significantly since the introduction of a National Naloxone Programme in Scotland in January 2011. In contrast, naloxone carriage is low and decreased between the two NESI surveys; this area requires further investigation.",
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McAulay, A, Munro, A, Bird, S, Hutchinson, S, Goldberg, D & Taylor, A 2016, 'Engagement in a National Naloxone Programme among people who inject drugs' Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 162, pp. 236-240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.02.031

Engagement in a National Naloxone Programme among people who inject drugs. / McAulay, Andrew ; Munro, Alison; Bird, Sheila; Hutchinson, Sharon; Goldberg, David; Taylor, Avril.

In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 162, 01.05.2016, p. 236-240.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Engagement in a National Naloxone Programme among people who inject drugs

AU - McAulay, Andrew

AU - Munro, Alison

AU - Bird, Sheila

AU - Hutchinson, Sharon

AU - Goldberg, David

AU - Taylor, Avril

PY - 2016/5/1

Y1 - 2016/5/1

N2 - BackgroundAvailability of the opioid antagonist naloxone for lay administration has grown substantially since first proposed in 1996. Gaps remain, though, in our understanding of how people who inject drugs (PWID) engage with naloxone programmes over time.AimsThis paper aimed to address three specific evidence gaps: the extent of naloxone supply to PWID; supply-source (community or prisons); and the carriage of naloxone among PWID.Materials and methodsAnalysis of Scotland’s Needle Exchange Surveillance Initiative (NESI) responses in 2011–2012 and 2013–2014 was undertaken with a specific focus on the extent of Scotland’s naloxone supply to PWID; including by source (community or prisons); and on the carriage of naloxone. Differences in responses between the two surveys were measured using Chi-square tests together with 95% confidence intervals for rate-differences over time.ResultsThe proportion of NESI participants who reported that they had been prescribed naloxone within the last year increased significantly from 8% (175/2146; 95% CI: 7–9%) in 2011–2012 to 32% (745/2331; 95% CI: 30% to 34%) in 2013–2014. In contrast, the proportion of NESI participants who carried naloxone with them on the day they were interviewed decreased significantly from 16% (27/169; 95% CI: 10% to 22%) in 2011–2012 to 5% (39/741; 95% CI: 4% to 7%) in 2013–2014.ConclusionsThe supply of naloxone to PWID has increased significantly since the introduction of a National Naloxone Programme in Scotland in January 2011. In contrast, naloxone carriage is low and decreased between the two NESI surveys; this area requires further investigation.

AB - BackgroundAvailability of the opioid antagonist naloxone for lay administration has grown substantially since first proposed in 1996. Gaps remain, though, in our understanding of how people who inject drugs (PWID) engage with naloxone programmes over time.AimsThis paper aimed to address three specific evidence gaps: the extent of naloxone supply to PWID; supply-source (community or prisons); and the carriage of naloxone among PWID.Materials and methodsAnalysis of Scotland’s Needle Exchange Surveillance Initiative (NESI) responses in 2011–2012 and 2013–2014 was undertaken with a specific focus on the extent of Scotland’s naloxone supply to PWID; including by source (community or prisons); and on the carriage of naloxone. Differences in responses between the two surveys were measured using Chi-square tests together with 95% confidence intervals for rate-differences over time.ResultsThe proportion of NESI participants who reported that they had been prescribed naloxone within the last year increased significantly from 8% (175/2146; 95% CI: 7–9%) in 2011–2012 to 32% (745/2331; 95% CI: 30% to 34%) in 2013–2014. In contrast, the proportion of NESI participants who carried naloxone with them on the day they were interviewed decreased significantly from 16% (27/169; 95% CI: 10% to 22%) in 2011–2012 to 5% (39/741; 95% CI: 4% to 7%) in 2013–2014.ConclusionsThe supply of naloxone to PWID has increased significantly since the introduction of a National Naloxone Programme in Scotland in January 2011. In contrast, naloxone carriage is low and decreased between the two NESI surveys; this area requires further investigation.

U2 - 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.02.031

DO - 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.02.031

M3 - Article

VL - 162

SP - 236

EP - 240

JO - Drug and Alcohol Dependence

JF - Drug and Alcohol Dependence

SN - 0376-8716

ER -