End-to-end downlink power consumption of heterogeneous small-cell networks based on the probabilistic traffic model

Ali Riza Ekti, Muhammad Zeeshan Shakir, Erchin Serpedin, Khalid A. Qaraqe

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Heterogeneous networks (HetNets) represent a promising solution for the next generation wireless networks (NGWNs), where many low power, low cost small-cells (e.g., fem-tocells) are planned to support the existing macrocell networks to reduce the over the air signaling and uplink power consumption, and thereby enhance the spectral efficiency compared to the macro-only network. In this context, the massive deployment of many lightly loaded small-cells is anticipated to increase the downlink power consumption of the HetNets. This paper investigates the end-to-end downlink power consumption of the HetNets, which consists of the power consumed by the macrocell and small-cell base stations and the backhaul to carry the traffic from the access to the core network. The downlink power consumption depends probabilistically on the population of the active mobile users in both the macrocell and small-cell networks such that the regulating factor is referred to as active user population factor (AUPF). A mathematical framework is presented to derive AUPF by assuming that the total population of active mobile users is a random variable and has a Binomial probability distribution. The number of active users and small-cells are calculated by the proposed probabilistic traffic model which assures the reduction in downlink power consumption since it now consists of the power consumption due to the base stations and backhaul for only the active population of mobile users. This model helps to evaluate the power consumption of HetNets. The simulations results indicate that AUPF and traffic load have significant impact on the downlink power consumption of HetNets.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2014 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC)
ISBN (Electronic)9781479930838
Publication statusPublished - 20 Nov 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • probability distributions
  • heterogeneous networks
  • small-cells
  • downlink power consumption
  • traffic load


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