Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) is a popular over-the-top video content distribution technique that adapts the streaming session according to the users network condition typically in terms of downlink bandwidth. This video quality adaptation can be achieved by scaling the frame quality, spatial resolution or frame rate. Despite the flexibility on the video quality scaling methods, each of these quality scaling dimensions has varying effects on the Quality of Experience (QoE) for end users. Furthermore, in video streaming, the changes in motion over time along with the scaling method employed have an influence on QoE, hence the need to carefully tailor scaling methods to suit streaming applications and content type. In this work, we investigate an intelligent DASH approach for the latest video coding standard H.265 and propose a heuristic QoE-aware cost-efficient adaptation scheme that does not switch unnecessarily to the highest quality level but rather stays temporarily at an intermediate quality level in certain streaming scenarios. Such an approach achieves a comparable and consistent level of quality under impaired network conditions as commonly found in Internet and mobile networks whilst reducing bandwidth requirements and quality switching overhead. The rationale is based on our empirical experiments, which show that an increase in bitrate does not necessarily mean noticeable improvement in QoE. Furthermore, our work demonstrates that the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and the spatial resolution scalability types are the best fit for our proposed algorithm. Finally, we demonstrate an innovative interaction between quality scaling methods and the polarity of switching operations. The proposed QoE-aware scheme is implemented and empirical results show that it is able to reduce bandwidth requirements by up to 41% whilst achieving equivalent QoE compared with a representative DASH reference implementation.
|Number of pages||23|
|Journal||ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications|
|Early online date||1 Feb 2019|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 1 Feb 2019|
- Quality scaling dimension
- adaptation algorithm