Effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on oral health and associated markers of systemic health: a systematic review

Shatha S. Alhulaefi, Anthony W. Watson, Sheena E. Ramsay, Nick S. Jakubovics, Jamie Matu, Alex Griffiths, Rachel Kimble, Mario Siervo, Kirsten Brandt, Oliver M. Shannon*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Poor oral health can impact an individual’s ability to eat and has been associated with an increased risk of non-communicable diseases. While the benefits of nitrate consumption on oral health were first proposed more than 20 years ago, no systematic review has been published examining effects of dietary nitrate on oral health. This systematic review investigated the effects of dietary nitrate on markers of oral health in vivo in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Five databases (PubMed, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus) were searched from inception until March 2023. Nine articles reporting data on 284 participants were included. Dietary nitrate was provided via beetroot juice in most studies. The duration of the interventions ranged from one day to six weeks. Dietary nitrate supplementation increased the relative abundance of several individual bacterial genera including Neisseria and Rothia. Dietary nitrate supplementation increased salivary pH and decreased salivary acidification following consumption of a sugar-sweetened beverage. Furthermore, dietary nitrate supplementation resulted in a decrease in the gingival inflammation index. The results of this systematic review suggest that dietary nitrate could represent a potential nutritional strategy to positively modify oral health by impacting the oral microbiome, altering salivary pH, and minimizing gingival inflammation.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages16
JournalCritical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Early online date11 May 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 11 May 2024


  • nitrate
  • beetroot
  • spinach
  • lettuce
  • oral health


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