This paper describes a series of six full-scale laboratory tests conducted on cold-formed steel portal frame buildings in order to investigate the effects of joint flexibility and stressed skin diaphragm action. The frames used for the laboratory tests were of 6 m span, 3 m height, 10° pitch and the frame spacing was 3 m. Vertical loading was applied in two tests, and horizontal loading was applied in another four tests. The laboratory test set-up represented a building having two gable frames and two internal frames. Tests were conducted on frames having two joint types, both with and without roof sheeting. It was shown that as a result of stressed skin action, the internal frame with roof sheeting resisted approximately three times more horizontal load than the bare frame and the deflection of the internal frame was reduced by 90% relative to the bare frame. When the difference in loads between 2D (bare frame model) and 3D (stressed skin model) were considered, it was shown that the joint flexibility of the frame has a significant effect on the load transfer between frames through the roof sheeting. It was found that the ‘true’ loads transferred to the gable frames are between three and seven times higher than the loads deriving from tributary area. By using stressed skin analysis, it is possible to assess the shear force in the roof sheeting so that damage to the fixings is prevented and a more economical design is possible.
Wrzesien, A., Lim, J. B. P., Xu, Y., MacLeod, I. A., & Lawson, R. M. (2015). Effect of stressed skin action on the behaviour of cold-formed steel portal frames. Engineering Structures, 105, 123-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2015.09.026