Ghrelin plays key roles in energy homeostasis by central and peripheral actions that include effects on insulin signalling pathways in liver. Insulin is an important inhibitor of production by hepatocytes of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) which has an endocrine role to inhibit IGF availability. The effects of ghrelin, insulin, an AMPK activator, and an AMPK inhibitor on IGFBP-1 secretion were studied in H4-II-E rat liver cells. Ghrelin (100 nM) blocked the inhibitory effect of a maximally effective concentration of insulin (10 ng/mL) on IGFBP-1 secretion during a 5 h incubation period (P < 0.001) in the absence and presence of an AMPK inhibitor. Ghrelin, alone, had no effect on IGFBP-1 production, but enhanced secretion independently of insulin under conditions of AMPK activation (P < 0.001). In conclusion, IGFBP-1 is identified as a novel target of ghrelin action in liver that may contribute to its metabolic effects in obesity.