Dietary nitrate supplementation alters the oral microbiome but does not improve the vascular responses to an acute nitrate dose

Mia Burleigh, Luke Liddle, David J. Muggeridge, Christopher Monaghan, Nicholas Sculthorpe, John Butcher, Fiona Henriquez, Chris Easton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Nitrate (NO3−) contained in food and beverages can transiently increase nitric oxide (NO) availability following a stepwise reduction to nitrite (NO2−) by commensal bacteria in the oral cavity. We tested the hypothesis that regular ingestion of dietary NO3− would influence the oral microbiome, the capacity to reduce NO3− to NO2− in saliva, and the vascular responses to an acute dose of NO3−. The abundance of bacterial species on the tongue, the availability of NO markers, and vascular function were assessed in 11 healthy males before and after 7 days of supplementation with NO3−-rich beetroot juice and a NO3−-depleted placebo. As expected, saliva and plasma NO2− and NO3− were significantly elevated after NO3− supplementation (all P < 0.05) but not placebo. We found that NO3− supplementation increased salivary pH (7.13 ± 0.54 to 7.39 ± 0.68, P = 0.043) and altered the abundance of some bacteria previously implicated in NO3− reduction: Neisseria (from 2% ± 3%–9% ± 5%, P < 0.001), Prevotella (from 34% ± 17%–23% ± 11%, P = 0.001) and Actinomyces (from 1% ± 1%–0.5% ± 0.4%). Despite these alterations to the oral microbiota, an acute dose of NO3− increased salivary and plasma NO2−, reduced systolic blood pressure and increased the response to flow mediated dilation to a similar extent before and after 7 days of supplementation (P > 0.05). Our study establishes that supplementing the diet with NO3− for a sustained period can alter the oral environment in favour of health but does not impact the response to an acute NO3− dose. Acute ingestion of NO3− results in transient improvements in vascular function but the dietary induced adaptations to the oral bacteria did not enhance these effects.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-63
Number of pages10
JournalNitric Oxide
Volume89
Early online date30 Apr 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2019

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Microbiota
Dietary Supplements
Nitrates
Blood Vessels
Bacteria
Nitric Oxide
Availability
Saliva
Beverages
Nutrition
Nitrites
Eating
Food and Beverages
Health
Plasmas
Tongue
Mouth
Placebos
Diet

Cite this

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title = "Dietary nitrate supplementation alters the oral microbiome but does not improve the vascular responses to an acute nitrate dose",
abstract = "Nitrate (NO3−) contained in food and beverages can transiently increase nitric oxide (NO) availability following a stepwise reduction to nitrite (NO2−) by commensal bacteria in the oral cavity. We tested the hypothesis that regular ingestion of dietary NO3− would influence the oral microbiome, the capacity to reduce NO3− to NO2− in saliva, and the vascular responses to an acute dose of NO3−. The abundance of bacterial species on the tongue, the availability of NO markers, and vascular function were assessed in 11 healthy males before and after 7 days of supplementation with NO3−-rich beetroot juice and a NO3−-depleted placebo. As expected, saliva and plasma NO2− and NO3− were significantly elevated after NO3− supplementation (all P < 0.05) but not placebo. We found that NO3− supplementation increased salivary pH (7.13 ± 0.54 to 7.39 ± 0.68, P = 0.043) and altered the abundance of some bacteria previously implicated in NO3− reduction: Neisseria (from 2{\%} ± 3{\%}–9{\%} ± 5{\%}, P < 0.001), Prevotella (from 34{\%} ± 17{\%}–23{\%} ± 11{\%}, P = 0.001) and Actinomyces (from 1{\%} ± 1{\%}–0.5{\%} ± 0.4{\%}). Despite these alterations to the oral microbiota, an acute dose of NO3− increased salivary and plasma NO2−, reduced systolic blood pressure and increased the response to flow mediated dilation to a similar extent before and after 7 days of supplementation (P > 0.05). Our study establishes that supplementing the diet with NO3− for a sustained period can alter the oral environment in favour of health but does not impact the response to an acute NO3− dose. Acute ingestion of NO3− results in transient improvements in vascular function but the dietary induced adaptations to the oral bacteria did not enhance these effects.",
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Dietary nitrate supplementation alters the oral microbiome but does not improve the vascular responses to an acute nitrate dose. / Burleigh, Mia; Liddle, Luke; Muggeridge, David J.; Monaghan, Christopher; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Butcher, John; Henriquez, Fiona ; Easton, Chris.

In: Nitric Oxide, Vol. 89, 01.08.2019, p. 54-63.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dietary nitrate supplementation alters the oral microbiome but does not improve the vascular responses to an acute nitrate dose

AU - Burleigh, Mia

AU - Liddle, Luke

AU - Muggeridge, David J.

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AU - Butcher, John

AU - Henriquez, Fiona

AU - Easton, Chris

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N2 - Nitrate (NO3−) contained in food and beverages can transiently increase nitric oxide (NO) availability following a stepwise reduction to nitrite (NO2−) by commensal bacteria in the oral cavity. We tested the hypothesis that regular ingestion of dietary NO3− would influence the oral microbiome, the capacity to reduce NO3− to NO2− in saliva, and the vascular responses to an acute dose of NO3−. The abundance of bacterial species on the tongue, the availability of NO markers, and vascular function were assessed in 11 healthy males before and after 7 days of supplementation with NO3−-rich beetroot juice and a NO3−-depleted placebo. As expected, saliva and plasma NO2− and NO3− were significantly elevated after NO3− supplementation (all P < 0.05) but not placebo. We found that NO3− supplementation increased salivary pH (7.13 ± 0.54 to 7.39 ± 0.68, P = 0.043) and altered the abundance of some bacteria previously implicated in NO3− reduction: Neisseria (from 2% ± 3%–9% ± 5%, P < 0.001), Prevotella (from 34% ± 17%–23% ± 11%, P = 0.001) and Actinomyces (from 1% ± 1%–0.5% ± 0.4%). Despite these alterations to the oral microbiota, an acute dose of NO3− increased salivary and plasma NO2−, reduced systolic blood pressure and increased the response to flow mediated dilation to a similar extent before and after 7 days of supplementation (P > 0.05). Our study establishes that supplementing the diet with NO3− for a sustained period can alter the oral environment in favour of health but does not impact the response to an acute NO3− dose. Acute ingestion of NO3− results in transient improvements in vascular function but the dietary induced adaptations to the oral bacteria did not enhance these effects.

AB - Nitrate (NO3−) contained in food and beverages can transiently increase nitric oxide (NO) availability following a stepwise reduction to nitrite (NO2−) by commensal bacteria in the oral cavity. We tested the hypothesis that regular ingestion of dietary NO3− would influence the oral microbiome, the capacity to reduce NO3− to NO2− in saliva, and the vascular responses to an acute dose of NO3−. The abundance of bacterial species on the tongue, the availability of NO markers, and vascular function were assessed in 11 healthy males before and after 7 days of supplementation with NO3−-rich beetroot juice and a NO3−-depleted placebo. As expected, saliva and plasma NO2− and NO3− were significantly elevated after NO3− supplementation (all P < 0.05) but not placebo. We found that NO3− supplementation increased salivary pH (7.13 ± 0.54 to 7.39 ± 0.68, P = 0.043) and altered the abundance of some bacteria previously implicated in NO3− reduction: Neisseria (from 2% ± 3%–9% ± 5%, P < 0.001), Prevotella (from 34% ± 17%–23% ± 11%, P = 0.001) and Actinomyces (from 1% ± 1%–0.5% ± 0.4%). Despite these alterations to the oral microbiota, an acute dose of NO3− increased salivary and plasma NO2−, reduced systolic blood pressure and increased the response to flow mediated dilation to a similar extent before and after 7 days of supplementation (P > 0.05). Our study establishes that supplementing the diet with NO3− for a sustained period can alter the oral environment in favour of health but does not impact the response to an acute NO3− dose. Acute ingestion of NO3− results in transient improvements in vascular function but the dietary induced adaptations to the oral bacteria did not enhance these effects.

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