Abstract

Nitrate (NO3−) contained in food and beverages can transiently increase nitric oxide (NO) availability following a stepwise reduction to nitrite (NO2−) by commensal bacteria in the oral cavity. We tested the hypothesis that regular ingestion of dietary NO3− would influence the oral microbiome, the capacity to reduce NO3− to NO2− in saliva, and the vascular responses to an acute dose of NO3−. The abundance of bacterial species on the tongue, the availability of NO markers, and vascular function were assessed in 11 healthy males before and after 7 days of supplementation with NO3−-rich beetroot juice and a NO3−-depleted placebo. As expected, saliva and plasma NO2− and NO3− were significantly elevated after NO3− supplementation (all P < 0.05) but not placebo. We found that NO3− supplementation increased salivary pH (7.13 ± 0.54 to 7.39 ± 0.68, P = 0.043) and altered the abundance of some bacteria previously implicated in NO3− reduction: Neisseria (from 2% ± 3%–9% ± 5%, P < 0.001), Prevotella (from 34% ± 17%–23% ± 11%, P = 0.001) and Actinomyces (from 1% ± 1%–0.5% ± 0.4%). Despite these alterations to the oral microbiota, an acute dose of NO3− increased salivary and plasma NO2−, reduced systolic blood pressure and increased the response to flow mediated dilation to a similar extent before and after 7 days of supplementation (P > 0.05). Our study establishes that supplementing the diet with NO3− for a sustained period can alter the oral environment in favour of health but does not impact the response to an acute NO3− dose. Acute ingestion of NO3− results in transient improvements in vascular function but the dietary induced adaptations to the oral bacteria did not enhance these effects.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-63
Number of pages10
JournalNitric Oxide
Volume89
Early online date30 Apr 2019
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 30 Apr 2019

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Microbiota
Dietary Supplements
Nitrates
Blood Vessels
Bacteria
Nitric Oxide
Availability
Saliva
Beverages
Nutrition
Nitrites
Eating
Food and Beverages
Health
Plasmas
Tongue
Mouth
Placebos
Diet

Cite this

@article{662fbf0e39b24fcca6036e9134ba0112,
title = "Dietary nitrate supplementation alters the oral microbiome but does not improve the vascular responses to an acute nitrate dose",
abstract = "Nitrate (NO3−) contained in food and beverages can transiently increase nitric oxide (NO) availability following a stepwise reduction to nitrite (NO2−) by commensal bacteria in the oral cavity. We tested the hypothesis that regular ingestion of dietary NO3− would influence the oral microbiome, the capacity to reduce NO3− to NO2− in saliva, and the vascular responses to an acute dose of NO3−. The abundance of bacterial species on the tongue, the availability of NO markers, and vascular function were assessed in 11 healthy males before and after 7 days of supplementation with NO3−-rich beetroot juice and a NO3−-depleted placebo. As expected, saliva and plasma NO2− and NO3− were significantly elevated after NO3− supplementation (all P < 0.05) but not placebo. We found that NO3− supplementation increased salivary pH (7.13 ± 0.54 to 7.39 ± 0.68, P = 0.043) and altered the abundance of some bacteria previously implicated in NO3− reduction: Neisseria (from 2{\%} ± 3{\%}–9{\%} ± 5{\%}, P < 0.001), Prevotella (from 34{\%} ± 17{\%}–23{\%} ± 11{\%}, P = 0.001) and Actinomyces (from 1{\%} ± 1{\%}–0.5{\%} ± 0.4{\%}). Despite these alterations to the oral microbiota, an acute dose of NO3− increased salivary and plasma NO2−, reduced systolic blood pressure and increased the response to flow mediated dilation to a similar extent before and after 7 days of supplementation (P > 0.05). Our study establishes that supplementing the diet with NO3− for a sustained period can alter the oral environment in favour of health but does not impact the response to an acute NO3− dose. Acute ingestion of NO3− results in transient improvements in vascular function but the dietary induced adaptations to the oral bacteria did not enhance these effects.",
author = "Mia Burleigh and Luke Liddle and Muggeridge, {David J.} and Christopher Monaghan and Nicholas Sculthorpe and John Butcher and Fiona Henriquez and Chris Easton",
year = "2019",
month = "4",
day = "30",
doi = "10.1016/j.niox.2019.04.010",
language = "English",
volume = "89",
pages = "54--63",
journal = "Nitric Oxide",
issn = "1089-8603",
publisher = "Elsevier B.V.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dietary nitrate supplementation alters the oral microbiome but does not improve the vascular responses to an acute nitrate dose

AU - Burleigh, Mia

AU - Liddle, Luke

AU - Muggeridge, David J.

AU - Monaghan, Christopher

AU - Sculthorpe, Nicholas

AU - Butcher, John

AU - Henriquez, Fiona

AU - Easton, Chris

PY - 2019/4/30

Y1 - 2019/4/30

N2 - Nitrate (NO3−) contained in food and beverages can transiently increase nitric oxide (NO) availability following a stepwise reduction to nitrite (NO2−) by commensal bacteria in the oral cavity. We tested the hypothesis that regular ingestion of dietary NO3− would influence the oral microbiome, the capacity to reduce NO3− to NO2− in saliva, and the vascular responses to an acute dose of NO3−. The abundance of bacterial species on the tongue, the availability of NO markers, and vascular function were assessed in 11 healthy males before and after 7 days of supplementation with NO3−-rich beetroot juice and a NO3−-depleted placebo. As expected, saliva and plasma NO2− and NO3− were significantly elevated after NO3− supplementation (all P < 0.05) but not placebo. We found that NO3− supplementation increased salivary pH (7.13 ± 0.54 to 7.39 ± 0.68, P = 0.043) and altered the abundance of some bacteria previously implicated in NO3− reduction: Neisseria (from 2% ± 3%–9% ± 5%, P < 0.001), Prevotella (from 34% ± 17%–23% ± 11%, P = 0.001) and Actinomyces (from 1% ± 1%–0.5% ± 0.4%). Despite these alterations to the oral microbiota, an acute dose of NO3− increased salivary and plasma NO2−, reduced systolic blood pressure and increased the response to flow mediated dilation to a similar extent before and after 7 days of supplementation (P > 0.05). Our study establishes that supplementing the diet with NO3− for a sustained period can alter the oral environment in favour of health but does not impact the response to an acute NO3− dose. Acute ingestion of NO3− results in transient improvements in vascular function but the dietary induced adaptations to the oral bacteria did not enhance these effects.

AB - Nitrate (NO3−) contained in food and beverages can transiently increase nitric oxide (NO) availability following a stepwise reduction to nitrite (NO2−) by commensal bacteria in the oral cavity. We tested the hypothesis that regular ingestion of dietary NO3− would influence the oral microbiome, the capacity to reduce NO3− to NO2− in saliva, and the vascular responses to an acute dose of NO3−. The abundance of bacterial species on the tongue, the availability of NO markers, and vascular function were assessed in 11 healthy males before and after 7 days of supplementation with NO3−-rich beetroot juice and a NO3−-depleted placebo. As expected, saliva and plasma NO2− and NO3− were significantly elevated after NO3− supplementation (all P < 0.05) but not placebo. We found that NO3− supplementation increased salivary pH (7.13 ± 0.54 to 7.39 ± 0.68, P = 0.043) and altered the abundance of some bacteria previously implicated in NO3− reduction: Neisseria (from 2% ± 3%–9% ± 5%, P < 0.001), Prevotella (from 34% ± 17%–23% ± 11%, P = 0.001) and Actinomyces (from 1% ± 1%–0.5% ± 0.4%). Despite these alterations to the oral microbiota, an acute dose of NO3− increased salivary and plasma NO2−, reduced systolic blood pressure and increased the response to flow mediated dilation to a similar extent before and after 7 days of supplementation (P > 0.05). Our study establishes that supplementing the diet with NO3− for a sustained period can alter the oral environment in favour of health but does not impact the response to an acute NO3− dose. Acute ingestion of NO3− results in transient improvements in vascular function but the dietary induced adaptations to the oral bacteria did not enhance these effects.

U2 - 10.1016/j.niox.2019.04.010

DO - 10.1016/j.niox.2019.04.010

M3 - Article

VL - 89

SP - 54

EP - 63

JO - Nitric Oxide

JF - Nitric Oxide

SN - 1089-8603

ER -