Development of a high throughput and low cost model for the study of semi-dry biofilms

Ngozi Amaeze, Ayorinde Akinbobola, Valentine Chukwuemeka, Adil Abalkhail, Gordon Ramage, Ryan Kean, Harry Staines, Craig Williams, William Mackay*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
22 Downloads (Pure)


The persistence of microorganisms as biofilms on dry surfaces resistant to the usual terminal cleaning methods may pose an additional risk of transmission of infections. In this study, the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) dry biofilm model (DBM) was adapted into a microtiter plate format (Model 1) and replicated to create a novel in vitro model that replicates conditions commonly encountered in the healthcare environment (Model 2). Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus grown in the two models were comparable to the biofilms of the CDC DBM in terms of recovered log10 CFU well−1. Assessment of the antimicrobial tolerance of biofilms grown in the two models showed Model 2 a better model for biofilm formation. Confirmation of the biofilms’ phenotype with an extracellular matrix deficient S. aureus suggested stress tolerance through a non-matrix defined mechanism in microorganisms. This study highlights the importance of conditions maintained in bacterial growth as they affect biofilm phenotype and behaviour.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)403-415
Number of pages13
JournalBiofouling - The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biiofilm
Issue number4
Early online date22 May 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 22 May 2020


  • biofilms
  • biofilm primed aggregates
  • environment
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • persistence


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