Environmental pollution by pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a critical concern worldwide and fungal bioremediation constitutes an elegant and environment-friendly solution. Mucorales from the Zygomycota phylum are often observed to be competitive in field conditions and Mucor plumbeus, in particular, can efficiently deplete PCP from media. The pathway for PCP degradation used by this fungus has not been investigated. In this study, PCP-derived metabolites were identified by liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, including tetra- and tri-chlorohydroquinones and phase II-conjugated metabolites. Amongst the latter are the previously reported glucose, sulfate and ribose conjugates, and identified for the first time in fungi sulfate-glucose conjugates. A PCP transformation pathway for M. plumbeus is proposed, which excludes the involvement of cytochrome P-450 and extracellular ligninolytic enzymes.
- Mucor plumbeus