Electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems such as electrochemical capacitors, batteries and fuel cells are considered as the most important technologies proposing environmentally friendly and sustainable solutions to address rapidly growing global energy demands and environmental concerns. Their commercial applications individually or in combination of two or more devices are based on their distinguishing properties e.g., energy/power densities, cyclability and efficiencies. In this review article, we have discussed some of the major electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems and encapsulated their technological advancement in recent years. Fundamental working principles and material compositions of various components such as electrodes and electrolytes have also been discussed. Furthermore, future challenges and perspectives for the applications of these technologies are discussed.
- energy storage systems (ESSs)
- renewable sources of energy
- electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems (EECSs)
- future prospects