Current guidelines for the implementation of flywheel resistance training technology in sports: a consensus statement

Marco Beato*, Kevin L. De Keijzer, Alejandro Muñoz-Lopez, Javier Raya-González, Marco Pozzo, Björn A. Alkner, Antonio Dello Iacono, Jordi Vicens-Bordas, Giuseppe Coratella, Sergio Maroto-Izquierdo, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Fernando Martin-Rivera, Jose L. Hernandez-Davo, Luis Suarez Arrones, Rafael Sabido, Moises de Hoyo, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo, Lena Norrbrand

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Downloads (Pure)


Flywheel resistance training has become more integrated within resistance training programs in a variety of sports due to the neuromuscular, strength, and task-specific enhancements reported with this training.

This paper aimed to present the consensus reached by internationally recognized experts during a meeting on current definitions and guidelines for the implementation of flywheel resistance training technology in sports.

Nineteen experts from different countries took part in the consensus process; 16 of them were present at the consensus meeting (18 May 2023) while three submitted their recommendations by e-mail. Prior to the meeting, evidence summaries were developed relating to areas of priority. This paper discusses the available evidence and consensus process from which recommendations were made regarding the appropriate use of flywheel resistance training technology in sports. The process to gain consensus had five steps: (1) performing a systematic review of systematic reviews, (2) updating the most recent umbrella review published on this topic, (3) first round discussion among a sample of the research group included in this consensus statement, (4) selection of research group members—process of the consensus meeting and formulation of the recommendations, and (5) the consensus process. The systematic analysis of the literature was performed to select the most up-to-date review papers available on the topic, which resulted in nine articles; their methodological quality was assessed according to AMSTAR 2 (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Review 2) and GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation). Statements and recommendations scoring 7–9 were considered appropriate.

The recommendations were based on the evidence summary and researchers’ expertise; the consensus statement included three statements and seven recommendations for the use of flywheel resistance training technology. These statements and recommendations were anonymously voted on and qualitatively analyzed. The three statements reported a score ranging from 8.1 to 8.8, and therefore, all statements included in this consensus were considered appropriate. The recommendations (1–7) had a score ranging from 7.7 to 8.6, and therefore, all recommendations were considered appropriate.

Because of the consensus achieved among the experts in this project, it is suggested that practitioners and researchers should adopt the guidelines reported in this consensus statement regarding the use of flywheel resistance technology in sports.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)541-556
Number of pages16
JournalSports Medicine
Early online date4 Jan 2024
Publication statusPublished - 31 Mar 2024


Dive into the research topics of 'Current guidelines for the implementation of flywheel resistance training technology in sports: a consensus statement'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this