Creatine-kinase- and exercise-related muscle damage implications for muscle performance and recovery

Marianne F. Baird, Scott M. Graham, Julien S. Baker, Gordon F. Bickerstaff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

340 Citations (Scopus)


The appearance of creatine kinase (CK) in blood has been generally considered to be an indirect marker of muscle damage, particularly for diagnosis of medical conditions such as myocardial infarction, muscular dystrophy, and cerebral diseases. However, there is controversy in the literature concerning its validity in reflecting muscle damage as a consequence of level and intensity of physical exercise. Nonmodifiable factors, for example, ethnicity, age, and gender, can also affect enzyme tissue activity and subsequent CK serum levels. The extent of effect suggests that acceptable upper limits of normal CK levels may need to be reset to recognise the impact of these factors. There is a need for standardisation of protocols and stronger guidelines which would facilitate greater scientific integrity. The purpose of this paper is to examine current evidence and opinion relating to the release of CK from skeletal muscle in response to physical activity and examine if elevated concentrations are a health concern.

Original languageEnglish
Article number960363
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • Journal Article


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