Characterization of an epoxy filler for piezocomposites compatible with microfabrication processes [Correspondence]

A. L. Bernassau, D. Hutson, C. E. M. Demore, S. Cochran

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

Abstract

Miniature ultrasound transducer arrays that can operate at frequencies above 30 MHz are needed for high-resolution medical imaging. One way to achieve this is with a kerfless structure based on 1-3 connectivity piezocomposite with the electrodes defined by photolithography. To achieve this, not only does the composite need planar, parallel, and smooth surfaces, but it must also be made with an epoxy filler compatible with the chemicals, heat, and vacuum required for photolithography. This paper reports full characterization of an epoxy suitable for fine-scale kerfless array fabrication, including photolithographic processing. Material properties have been investigated as a function of cure temperature and for compatibility with solvents. By increasing the cure temperature, the crosslinking between the epoxy and the hardener in- creases, resulting in a higher glass transition temperature. The cured epoxy consequently has better resistance to both heat and solvents. An elevated cure temperature, near 100°C, is required to optimize material properties for photolithography on 1-3 piezocomposites. The acoustic properties of the epoxy have also been studied. These are similar to other epoxies used in piezocomposite fabrication and no significant changes have been observed for the different cure temperatures.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2743-2748
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Volume58
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Microfabrication
fillers
Fillers
Photolithography
photolithography
Materials properties
hardeners
Fabrication
Acoustic properties
heat
Temperature
fabrication
temperature
acoustic properties
Medical imaging
crosslinking
Crosslinking
glass transition temperature
compatibility
Transducers

Keywords

  • curing
  • electrodes
  • filled polymers
  • glass transition
  • microfabrication
  • photolithography
  • piezoelectricity
  • resins
  • surface roughness
  • ultrasonic effects
  • acoustic properties
  • cure temperature
  • epoxy filler
  • fine-scale kerfless array microfabrication
  • glass transition temperature
  • high-resolution medical imaging
  • piezocomposites
  • surface smoothness
  • ultrasound transducer arrays
  • Acoustics
  • Curing
  • Electrodes
  • Fabrication
  • Lithography
  • Temperature
  • Temperature measurement
  • Epoxy Compounds
  • Equipment Design
  • Manufactured Materials
  • Materials Testing
  • Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems
  • Miniaturization
  • Transducers

Cite this

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title = "Characterization of an epoxy filler for piezocomposites compatible with microfabrication processes [Correspondence]",
abstract = "Miniature ultrasound transducer arrays that can operate at frequencies above 30 MHz are needed for high-resolution medical imaging. One way to achieve this is with a kerfless structure based on 1-3 connectivity piezocomposite with the electrodes defined by photolithography. To achieve this, not only does the composite need planar, parallel, and smooth surfaces, but it must also be made with an epoxy filler compatible with the chemicals, heat, and vacuum required for photolithography. This paper reports full characterization of an epoxy suitable for fine-scale kerfless array fabrication, including photolithographic processing. Material properties have been investigated as a function of cure temperature and for compatibility with solvents. By increasing the cure temperature, the crosslinking between the epoxy and the hardener in- creases, resulting in a higher glass transition temperature. The cured epoxy consequently has better resistance to both heat and solvents. An elevated cure temperature, near 100°C, is required to optimize material properties for photolithography on 1-3 piezocomposites. The acoustic properties of the epoxy have also been studied. These are similar to other epoxies used in piezocomposite fabrication and no significant changes have been observed for the different cure temperatures.",
keywords = "curing, electrodes, filled polymers, glass transition, microfabrication, photolithography, piezoelectricity, resins, surface roughness, ultrasonic effects, acoustic properties, cure temperature, epoxy filler, fine-scale kerfless array microfabrication, glass transition temperature, high-resolution medical imaging, piezocomposites, surface smoothness, ultrasound transducer arrays, Acoustics, Curing, Electrodes, Fabrication, Lithography, Temperature, Temperature measurement, Epoxy Compounds, Equipment Design, Manufactured Materials, Materials Testing, Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems, Miniaturization, Transducers",
author = "Bernassau, {A. L.} and D. Hutson and Demore, {C. E. M.} and S. Cochran",
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month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1109/TUFFC.2011.2137",
language = "English",
volume = "58",
pages = "2743--2748",
journal = "IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control",
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Characterization of an epoxy filler for piezocomposites compatible with microfabrication processes [Correspondence]. / Bernassau, A. L.; Hutson, D.; Demore, C. E. M.; Cochran, S.

In: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 58, No. 12, 01.12.2011, p. 2743-2748.

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

TY - JOUR

T1 - Characterization of an epoxy filler for piezocomposites compatible with microfabrication processes [Correspondence]

AU - Bernassau, A. L.

AU - Hutson, D.

AU - Demore, C. E. M.

AU - Cochran, S.

PY - 2011/12/1

Y1 - 2011/12/1

N2 - Miniature ultrasound transducer arrays that can operate at frequencies above 30 MHz are needed for high-resolution medical imaging. One way to achieve this is with a kerfless structure based on 1-3 connectivity piezocomposite with the electrodes defined by photolithography. To achieve this, not only does the composite need planar, parallel, and smooth surfaces, but it must also be made with an epoxy filler compatible with the chemicals, heat, and vacuum required for photolithography. This paper reports full characterization of an epoxy suitable for fine-scale kerfless array fabrication, including photolithographic processing. Material properties have been investigated as a function of cure temperature and for compatibility with solvents. By increasing the cure temperature, the crosslinking between the epoxy and the hardener in- creases, resulting in a higher glass transition temperature. The cured epoxy consequently has better resistance to both heat and solvents. An elevated cure temperature, near 100°C, is required to optimize material properties for photolithography on 1-3 piezocomposites. The acoustic properties of the epoxy have also been studied. These are similar to other epoxies used in piezocomposite fabrication and no significant changes have been observed for the different cure temperatures.

AB - Miniature ultrasound transducer arrays that can operate at frequencies above 30 MHz are needed for high-resolution medical imaging. One way to achieve this is with a kerfless structure based on 1-3 connectivity piezocomposite with the electrodes defined by photolithography. To achieve this, not only does the composite need planar, parallel, and smooth surfaces, but it must also be made with an epoxy filler compatible with the chemicals, heat, and vacuum required for photolithography. This paper reports full characterization of an epoxy suitable for fine-scale kerfless array fabrication, including photolithographic processing. Material properties have been investigated as a function of cure temperature and for compatibility with solvents. By increasing the cure temperature, the crosslinking between the epoxy and the hardener in- creases, resulting in a higher glass transition temperature. The cured epoxy consequently has better resistance to both heat and solvents. An elevated cure temperature, near 100°C, is required to optimize material properties for photolithography on 1-3 piezocomposites. The acoustic properties of the epoxy have also been studied. These are similar to other epoxies used in piezocomposite fabrication and no significant changes have been observed for the different cure temperatures.

KW - curing

KW - electrodes

KW - filled polymers

KW - glass transition

KW - microfabrication

KW - photolithography

KW - piezoelectricity

KW - resins

KW - surface roughness

KW - ultrasonic effects

KW - acoustic properties

KW - cure temperature

KW - epoxy filler

KW - fine-scale kerfless array microfabrication

KW - glass transition temperature

KW - high-resolution medical imaging

KW - piezocomposites

KW - surface smoothness

KW - ultrasound transducer arrays

KW - Acoustics

KW - Curing

KW - Electrodes

KW - Fabrication

KW - Lithography

KW - Temperature

KW - Temperature measurement

KW - Epoxy Compounds

KW - Equipment Design

KW - Manufactured Materials

KW - Materials Testing

KW - Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems

KW - Miniaturization

KW - Transducers

U2 - 10.1109/TUFFC.2011.2137

DO - 10.1109/TUFFC.2011.2137

M3 - Letter

VL - 58

SP - 2743

EP - 2748

JO - IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control

JF - IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control

SN - 0885-3010

IS - 12

ER -