Candida albicans biofilm heterogeneity does not influence denture stomatitis, but strongly influences denture cleansing capacity

Lindsay E. O'Donnell, Hasanain K.A. Alalwan, Ryan Kean, Gareth Calvert, Christopher J. Nile, David F Lappin, Douglas Robertson, Craig Williams, Gordon Ramage, Leighann Sherry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Approximately 20% of the UK population wear some form of denture prosthesis, resulting in denture stomatitis in half of these individuals. Candida albicans is primarily attributed as the causative agent, due to its biofilm forming ability. Recently, there has been increasing evidence of C. albicans biofilm heterogeneity and the negative impact it can have clinically; however, this phenomenon has yet to be studied in relation to denture isolates. The aims of this study were to evaluate C. albicans biofilm formation of clinical denture isolates in a denture environment, and assess antimicrobial activity of common denture cleansers against these tenacious communities. C. albicans isolated from dentures of healthy and diseased individuals was quantified using real-time PCR and biofilm biomass assessed using the crystal violet assay. Biofilm development on the denture substratum poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), Molloplast B and Ufi-gel was determined. Biofilm formation was assessed using metabolic and biomass stains, following treatment with denture hygiene products. Although C. albicans was detected in greater quantities in diseased individuals, it was not associated with increased biofilm biomass. Denture substrata were shown to influence biofilm biomass, with PMMA providing the most suitable environment for C. albicans to reside. Of all denture hygiene products tested, Milton had the most effective antimicrobial activity, reducing biofilm biomass and viability the greatest. Overall, our results highlight the complex nature of denture related disease, and disease development cannot always be attributed to a sole cause. It is the distinct combination of various factors that ultimately determines the pathogenic outcome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-60
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Medical Microbiology
Early online date6 Feb 2017
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 6 Feb 2017


  • Adhesion
  • biofilm
  • Candida albicans
  • cleanser
  • denture and oral


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