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    The study of bullying has flourished in recent years, reflecting the growing recognition of the negative long-term effects this type of aggressive behavior can have on victims and bullies. There is now a considerable body of cross-sectional and longitudinal research that has informed our understanding of what bullying is; who it is most likely to affect; what consequences it can have for victims, bullies, and the peer group; and what can be done to reduce its occurrence. This entry attempts to shed some light on these questions by reviewing key empirical research conducted in this field over the last three decades. The piecemeal and theoretically unsystematic way in which much of this evidence has been produced, however, makes it difficult to reach a clear and coherent conclusion on why bullying happens and how it can be effectively prevented. Readers of this review should be aware of these research limitations, which, to some extent, reflect the complexity of the bullying phenomenon that precludes straightforward, one-size-fits-all conclusions.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice
    EditorsGerben Bruinsma, David Weisburd
    PublisherSpringer-Verlag New York
    ISBN (Electronic)9781461456902
    ISBN (Print)9781461456896, 9781461456919
    Publication statusPublished - 2014


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