Arterial pulse wave velocity, inflammatory markers, pathological GH and IGF states, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease

Michael R. Graham, Peter Evans, Bruce Davies, Julien S. Baker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Blood pressure (BP) measurements provide information regarding risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, but only in a specific artery. Arterial stiffness (AS) can be determined by measurement of arterial pulse wave velocity (APWV). Separate from any role as a surrogate marker, AS is an important determinant of pulse pressure, left ventricular function and coronary artery perfusion pressure. Proximal elastic arteries and peripheral muscular arteries respond differently to aging and to medication. Endogenous human growth hormone (hGH), secreted by the anterior pituitary, peaks during early adulthood, declining at 14% per decade. Levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are at their peak during late adolescence and decline throughout adulthood, mirror imaging GH. Arterial endothelial dysfunction, an accepted cause of increased APWV in GH deficiency (GHD) is reversed by recombinant human (rh) GH therapy, favorably influencing the risk for atherogenesis. APWV is a noninvasive method for measuring atherosclerotic and hypertensive vascular changes increases with age and atherosclerosis leading to increased systolic blood pressure and increased left ventricular hypertrophy. Aerobic exercise training increases arterial compliance and reduces systolic blood pressure. Whole body arterial compliance is lowered in strength-trained individuals. Homocysteine and C-reactive protein are two inflammatory markers directly linked with arterial endothelial dysfunction. Reviews of GH in the somatopause have not been favorable and side effects of treatment have marred its use except in classical GHD. Is it possible that we should be assessing the combined effects of therapy with rhGH and rhIGF-I? Only multiple intervention studies will provide the answer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1361-1371
Number of pages11
JournalVascular Health and Risk Management
Volume4
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Dec 2008
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • arterial pulse
  • wave velocity
  • arterial stiffness
  • growth hormone
  • insulin-like growth factor
  • physiology

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